La Doncella: The Best Preserved Child Mummy in History
A team of Johan Reinhard ‘s expedition carried out an archaeological excavation in Argentina in 1999, near the summit of the highest active volcano in the world, Mount Llullaillaco. The crew set their camp 6,600 meters above sea level where the temperature dropped to -40 ° C.
A shock arose when a group member shouted “Mummy!” And so they discovered the “best burial site” in the world and, above all, the most preserved mummy in history.
On the site archeologists found 3 child mummies (the other two are La niña del rayo and El niño). However, the child mummy La Doncella (translated as The Maiden) was the most notable one.
La Doncella is the mummy of a 15-year-old Incan girl. Over 500 years ago, she was offered as a sacrifice to the Incan God of Sun. Scientists determined that before La Doncella was taken high up in the Andes Mountains, she was given chicha, a corn beer that made her fall into a deep sleep.
Coca leaves were found on her lips, which was used by the Incans to decrease the effects of altitude sickness. Furthermore, coins were found in La Doncella’s palm, alluding to her status as a messenger to heaven.
The Inca Empire and the Incan culture were wiped out by the Spanish conquerors. There exist such few traces of this civilization that once dominated South America.
As a result, the well-preserved ceramics and artefacts found alongside La Doncella carry vital importance. They illuminate the past and tell us a lot about the vanished Incan culture.
Virgins of the Sun
Virgins of the Sun were young girls who, around the age of 10, were chosen, or in some cases endowed by their families, to become servants or sacrifices to the Incan God of Sun.
The Virgins of the Sun had minimal duties, such as preparing offerings to the God. At a certain age, most of these virgin girls would be selected as concubines to the royal Incan court. Only a few of them would be selected as human sacrifices to the Sun God.
On the contrary to how people may react to this proposition today, back then, to be chosen as a sacrifice to the Sun God was a great honor. It was documented by the Incans that the virgins who were given the privilege to be sacrificed were treated as demi-god princesses.
Hair Samples from La Doncella
White Hair: Genetics or Stress?
Upon examining the body of La Doncella, scientists were struck by the fact that the young girl had strands of white hair. A highly unusual case for a 15-year old, this was thought to be on account of two possible factors: genetics or a high number of stressors in the girl’s life.
Her diet was changed to prepare her for the sacrifice
Scientists from University of Bradford, England, found out about La Doncella’s diet after examining her hair samples.
A year before her death, La Doncella’s diet consisted of vegetables and potatoes, a diet typically consumed by those in the lower class. However, later on her diet had changed to maize and meat, which was considered as the food of the upper classes.
As the research suggests, this shift in her diet dates back to the start of her life as a Virgin of the Sun, during which La Doncella was being prepared for sacrifice.
Where is La Doncella exhibited?
As of September 2007, La Doncella has been exhibited at the High Mountain Archeological Museum in Salta, Argentina. A special display was built for her keeping true to the conditions in which she was found.