Category Archives: EGYPT

Ancient Egyptian ‘city of the dead’ discovery reveals ‘elite’ mummies, jars filled with organs and mystery snake cult

Ancient Egyptian ‘city of the dead’ discovery reveals ‘elite’ mummies, jars filled with organs and mystery snake cult

A new burial chamber on the bottom of a communal burial shaft was unearthed in 2018, during exhilaration work carried out by the Egyptian-German team of the University of Tübingen, operating in Saqqara with a 30-meter deep connection to the mummification workshop discovered along with a large tomb complex with five burial chambers in 2018.

The project uncovered the sixth burial chamber behind a 2,600-year-old stone wall after more than a year of research and documentation

The new-discovered chamber had four wooden coffins in a poor state of preservation said Mostafa Waziri, secretary-general of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

The Minister of State for Antiquities, Dr. Ramadan Badri Hussein, said that one of the coffins belongs to a woman called Didibastett.

She was buried with six canopic jars, which contradicts the custom in ancient Egypt which was to embalm the lungs, stomach, intestines, and liver of the deceased, and then to store them in four jars under the protection of four gods, known as the Four Sons of Horus.

In a tomb deep below the desert, Egyptologist Ramadan Hussein (left) and mummy specialist Salima Ikram (right) examine the coffin of a woman who was laid to rest inside a limestone sarcophagus weighing more than seven tons.

The mission examined the content of Didibastett’s two extra canopic jars using computerized tomography (CT) scan. Preliminary analysis of the images indicates that the two jars contain human tissue.

Based on this result, there is a possibility that Didibastett had received a special form of mummification that preserved six organs of her body. The mission’s radiologist is currently conducting a thorough study of the images in order to identify the two extra organs.

Workers use a hand-cranked winch to lower tools and other gear to the mummy workshop and tombs 100 feet below. The burial complex occupied a prime location at Saqqara—within sight of the Step Pyramid of Djoser, one of Egypt’s oldest and most sacred monuments.

After studying texts on the coffins and sarcophagi in the burial chambers, the mission identified priests and priestesses of a mysterious snake goddess, known as Niut-shaes. Indications are that the priests of Niut-shaes were buried together and that she became a prominent goddess during the 26th Dynasty.

A priestess and a priest of Niut-shaes, who were buried in the same burial chamber, were possibly Egyptianised immigrants.

Their names, Ayput and Tjanimit, were common to the Libyan community that settled in Egypt from the 22nd Dynasty (ca. 943-716 BC) onward. Ancient Egypt was a multicultural society that received immigrants from different parts of the ancient world, including Greeks, Libyans, and Phoenicians among others.

Hussein said that the mission conducted non-invasive testing, called X-ray fluorescence, on the gilded silver mask that was discovered on the face of the mummy of a priestess of the goddess Niut-shaes. This test determined the purity of the mask’s silver at 99.07 percent, higher than Sterling Silver at 93.5 percent. This gilded silver mask is the first discovered in Egypt since 1939, and the third such mask to ever be found in Egypt.

A priest named Ayput was interred in a stone sarcophagus carved in the shape of a human, a style known as anthropoid. The mummy’s wrapping were coated with tar or resin, giving it a dark color.
Some of those buried at the complex were identified as priests and priestesses of a mysterious snake goddess.

An international team of archaeologists and chemists from the University of Tübingen, the University of Munich, and the Egyptian National Research Centre in Cairo carried out chemical testing on the residue of oils and resins preserved in cups, bowls, and pots found in the mummification workshop.

Early results of these tests give a list of mummification substances, including bitumen (tar), cedar oil, cedar resin, pistachio resin, beeswax, animal fat, and possibly olive oil and juniper oil, among others. The team is finalizing a report for scientific publication.

In July 2018, Khaled El-Enany, minister of tourism and antiquities, announced to the world the unprecedented discovery of a mummification workshop complex at Saqqara from the 26th Dynasty (ca. 664-525 BC). It included an embalmer’s cachette of pottery and a communal burial shaft.
This shaft is 30 m. deep and has six tombs.

The tombs contained around 54 mummies and skeletons, five large sarcophagi, a dozen calcite (Egyptian alabaster) canopic jars, thousands of shawabtis figurines, and a rare gilded silver mummy mask.

This discovery was rated among the top 10 archaeological discoveries of 2018 by Archaeology Magazine and Heritage Daily.

The mission of the University of Tübingen will resume its full investigation of the 26th Dynasty cemetery at Saqqara in the winter of 2020.

The amazing unfinished & abandoned 1,000-ton Egyptian Obelisk

The amazing unfinished & abandoned 1,000-ton Egyptian Obelisk

The greatest famous Egyptian obelisk is the “unfinished obelisk” that is found exactly where it was once semi-carved from the solid bedrock.

The block was intended as an obelisk with a height of 120 ft / 36 mt.  It is estimated that a block of granite this size would easily weigh more than a 1000 tons, some geologists have suggested a figure in the region of 1100 tons – 1150 tons.

This obelisk has, however, never been completed because during the process to remove the block of stone from its mother bedrock, a huge crack appeared that made the stone unusable.

The stone had no residual value apart from its planned use, to the stonemasons of that day, and this resulted in the stone being totally abandoned (perhaps under the reign of Queen Hatshepsut-18th Dynasty). Now take a minute to think of how many man-hours were wasted in getting the unfinished obelisk to the state at which it was abandoned.

It is dumbfounding to think that the main tools used to shape this excessively huge granite block were not chisels as most people would assume.

The above photo shows you the immensity of the unfinished obelisk.

The early Egyptian stonemasons used small hand-sized balls of the mineral Dolerite to pound against the surfaces of the roughly hewn obelisks until all the superfluous knobs and excrescences were flattened. Dolerite is one of the few substances on Planet Earth that is harder than granite, most other rocks would simply crumble if they were repeatedly banged against granite.

It has always puzzled me why the Egyptians chose to carve building blocks & statues from Granite when there were much softer and easier stones to work with? …and if you are thinking that it might be because the granite was locally sourced, stop! …the granite blocks used in & on the great pyramid of Giza were transported approx.

500 miles from quarry to the building site, Aswan to Cairo, so this would suggest that distance wasn’t a factor and that the stonemasons chose to work with granite, possibly for its durability or maybe simply because of its colour?

When planning the creation of an obelisk the quarry men would look for a suitable length of bedrock that had no visible flaws or cracks. Then they would make a series of small holes with probably copper tools in a line at regular intervals, similar to a row of hyphens (- – – – – -). Next they would hammer sun-dried wooden wedges into these holes.

These wooden wedges were then repeatedly soaked with water and would gradually expand over time, and yes, believe it or not, the power generated by wet wood expanding is strong enough to break a granite block free from a granite bedrock, a process which I find absolutely amazing.

How did our early ancestors discover such a method? It is interesting to note that the same technique for separating a block of stone from its mother bedrock appears to have been used by many cultures across the ancient world. Nobody ever devised a better method or technique.

Even today modern-day quarries use a very similar method involving making a line of holes in the rock, and instead of ramming wet wooden wedges into the holes which takes quite a long time to achieve the desired effect of splitting the rock face, modern quarrymen simply hammer metal wedges into the holes which achieves the same result, except much quicker. In larger quarries whole rock faces are loosened by putting sticks of dynamite into a sequence of drilled holes, which are then detonated by a remote-controlled device.

When the block of rock was finally freed from the bedrock and seen to be in one sturdy piece, the surfaces of the obelisks were leveled by repeatedly pounding them with hand-sized Dolerite stones as described above.

Finally the scribes and hieroglyphic artists would decorate all four faces with the religious beliefs and monarchial achievements of the day. There is no denying that Egypt was one of the most powerful empires ever to exist in human history and its monumental architectural achievements are testimony to that fact, but every old dog has its day and eventually has to give way to a younger stronger puppy, and the mighty civilization of ancient Egypt was not immune to the laws that govern the universe we live in, it too was eventually conquered by foreign visitors/armies.

Everybody knows that tourists can’t resist a souvenir of their travels, and unfortunately most conquerors are just big egotistic tourists at heart. The conquering nation usually takes a memento from the conquered nation to commemorate the victory, something to show the folks back home.

Over the centuries many nations have conquered Egypt, and many nations have been guilty of plundering souvenirs from the sands of this mesmerizing country, but some nations have taken utter liberties.

In various cities around the world, Istanbul, Rome, London, Paris & New York, you can find what at first sight appear to be replica Egyptian obelisks, but upon closer inspection, you will see that these obelisks are not replicas, they are actually authentic Egyptian obelisks, re-erected many miles from their original installation points in Egypt.

So far, only 28 giant Egyptian obelisks have ever been discovered, both erect & fallen. Of these 28 monolithic statements of ancient Egyptian achievement & ability, only 8 remain in Egypt.

70 million animal mummies: Egypt’s dark secret

70 million animal mummies: Egypt’s dark secret

In what is described as Egypt’s “dark secret,” a staggering 70 million mummified animals have been found in underground catacombs across Egypt, including cats, birds, rodents, and even crocodiles. But surprises awaited a research team when they scanned the animal-shaped mummies and found many of them empty!

Hidden: Among the remains scanned for the project using a CT Scanner and an X-ray machine where wading birds, shrews, and even a litter of tiny baby crocodiles. A cat is pictured in this X-ray

Radiographers and Egyptologists from the University of Manchester have used the latest medical imaging technology to scan hundreds of elaborately-prepared animal mummies which were collected from over thirty sites across Egypt during the 19 th and 20 th centuries, reports BBC News.

The University of Manchester program used CT scans and X-rays to look into 800 mummies, dating between 1000 B.C. and 400 A.D.

Various animal mummies from ancient Egypt.
Various animal mummies from ancient Egypt.

BBC program will investigate the huge animal mummification industry of ancient Egypt, and why many of the carefully prepared, elaborately wrapped mummies were found to have no bodies inside.

In a press release by the University of Manchester, research leader Dr Lidija Mcknight said, “We always knew that not all animal mummies contained what we expected them to contain, but we found around a third don’t contain any animal material at all – so no skeletal remains.”

Many gods in animal form were worshipped by the ancient Egyptians. The mummified animals were considered sacred gifts and were used as offerings. Because this was such a popular religious practice, and demand was so high, some animals are thought to have suffered near or total extinction locally.

Animals and animal parts were preserved and wrapped to use as offerings in ancient Egypt.

McKnight told The Washington Post , “You’d get one of these mummies and you’d ask it to take a message on your behalf to the gods and then wait for the gods to do something in return.

That’s kind of their place in the religious belief system of ancient Egypt, and that’s why we think there were so many of them. It was almost sort of an industry that sprang up at the time and continued for more than a 1,000 years.”

Various animal mummies were examined during the study, including wading birds, cats, falcons and shrews, and a five-foot-long crocodile. Scans revealed that the mummified crocodile contained eight baby crocodiles that had been carefully prepared and bound together, and wrapped with the mother in one big crocodile-shaped mummy.

One of the prizes finds of the project was a family of baby crocodiles carefully wrapped together and packed into one large crocodile shaped mummy

One cat-shaped mummy held only a few pieces of cat bone, and some artifacts contained no animal parts whatsoever, but instead held fillers like mud, sticks, reeds and eggshells, writes news site HNGN. The filler items were considered special as they had a connection to the animals and are thought to have served as symbolic remains.

Egyptian animal mummies in the British Museum.

One of the catacombs contained around two million mummified ibis birds alone, and a network of tombs housed up to eight million mummified dogs.

These incredible numbers and the surprising way in which the bodies were preserved suggest that the animal mummification industry of ancient Egypt was huge.

The BBC reports, “some experts suggest animal mummies were being made to be sold to Egyptian pilgrims and so the ancient embalmers could make more profit by selling ‘fake’ mummies, others like Lidija believe its evidence the ancient embalmers considered even the smallest parts of the animals to be sacred [and] went to just as much efforts to mummify them correctly.”

The temple complex in Saqqara holds millions of animal mummies to this day, yet to be excavated and catalogued by experts. Molecular biologist Sally Wasef from Griffith University, Australia has collected samples of bones from these mummies in order to analyze their DNA and determine if they had been ‘farmed’ or intensely bred. It is thought that millions of animals were required for such a massive industry, described as a “national obsession.”

The artistically carved face of a mummified cat found in ancient catacomb in Egypt.

In 2011, Smithsonian curator Melinda Zeder spoke of the phenomenally large animal offering industry to the BBC, saying: “The ancient Egyptians weren’t obsessed with death – they were obsessed with life. And everything they did to prepare for mummification was really looking at life after death and a way of perpetuating oneself forever.”

“The priests would sacrifice the animal for you, mummify it and then place it in a catacomb in your name. So this was a way of obtaining good standing in the eyes of whatever god it was,” she noted.

Though the University of Manchester research raises many questions about the mummification industry, McKnight says the preserved offerings serve as tiny time capsules, allowing modern science a peek into the ancient techniques and rituals associated with religion, life and death.

3500-year-old Ancient Egyptian stone chest could lead archaeologists to a royal tomb

3500-year-old Ancient Egyptian stone chest could lead archaeologists to a royal tomb

The stone artifact also contains a wooden chest engraved with the name of Thutmose II, a famous boy Pharaoh who took the throne aged just 13.

Discovered at the ancient site of Deir el-Bahari, the extraordinary find indicates an untouched royal tomb may be hidden nearby.

Several packages wrapped in linen canvas were found inside the box. One contained the goose and another held the egg of a bird known as an ibis.

Professor Andrzej Niwiński, from Warsaw University, told the Polish Press Agency: “The chest itself is about 40 cm long, with a slight smaller height.

“It was perfectly camouflaged, looked like an ordinary stone block. Only after a closer look did it turn out to be a chest.”

Several packages wrapped in linen canvas (top left) were found inside the chest. One contained the goose and another contained the egg of a bird known as an ibis. One package contained a wooden box (bottom left and top right)

Encased inside the stone chest was a wooden box wrapped in four layers of canvas.

Within this box was a second box in the shape of a chapel. It featured one of the names of Pharaoh Thutmose II.

Thutmose II was married to the famous Queen Hatshepsut. It’s thought he took the throne in his early teens and reigned for just three years before his death aged 16.

Archaeologists made the extraordinary find at the famous Egyptian site of Deir el-Bahari. It’s not clear how or why the goose was sacrificed.

It’s a vast complex of temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt.

Based on the artefacts’ symbolism and engravings, Professor Niwiński said he had high hopes of finding a hidden royal tomb somewhere nearby the burial.

“The royal deposit implies that a temple or a tomb was erected for the king here,” he said.

Mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Dayr al-Bahri, Egypt, c1457 BC. Archaeologists announced the discovery of a stone chest and a bundle in Dayr al-Bahri that could lead to the discovery of a royal temple

“And because we are in the middle of a royal cemetery, there is no doubt that it must be a tomb.

“The discovery of this deposit suggests that we are in the process of finding a tomb.”

The stone chest discovery was made in March last year but only made public this month.

Archaeologists continued their work in October 2019 but are yet to find an entrance to a secret tomb.

38 centimeter long finger found in Egypt left researchers clueless

38 centimeter long finger found in Egypt left researchers clueless

Researchers are traveling with photographs of a massive finger which are said to be 38 centimeters long, as they believe it is impossible and can not exist.

Although science suggests it’s impossible the finger found in Egypt is said to be true, and it has been X-rayed and comes with a certificate of authenticity.

The photographs of the large finger were captured in 1988, and at the time they were published in one of the leading newspapers in Europe.

The finger seems to suggest that it is evidence of giants having walked on the Earth in the past. The Bible even refers to Nephilim.

The remains of the finger are quite impressive, and the finger is a mummified humanoid finger that is 38 centimeters.

Egyptian researchers have said that the finger must have belonged to a creature that was more than 5 meters tall and in 1988 only a very few people were allowed to take photographs of what has been called an artifact that is incredible.

A grave robber was said to have discovered the huge finger when he was searching a tomb in Egypt that has not been disclosed. Entrepreneur Gregor Sporri wanted to buy the finger from the owner and made a good offer, but the owner said that he would not sell it.

Sporri said that the grave robber has a certificate to say that the finger was authentic and he also had an X-ray of the finger.

Sporri said that the finger was in a package that was oblong and it had a very musty smell to it. When he told the story about the finger in 2012, he said that he been very surprised when he had been shown the dark brown, huge finger.

Certificate of authenticity and X-Ray images of the giant finger

He went on to say that he had been allowed to pick it up and that he was also allowed to take photographs of the giant finger.

Sporri said that a bill had been placed at the side of the finger so that comparison in size could be got and the finger was bent and split open, and it had been covered in mold that had dried.

Could this be evidence that points towards the existence of giant beings that walked on Earth in the distant past?

Once Sporri left Egypt he decided that he would like to find out more about the giant finger and he set about trying to find where the body belonging to the finger was located.

He made his way back to Egypt in 2009 and went looking for the man who owned the finger, but he could not find him and it left scientists along with researchers scratching their heads.

All that remains of the giant finger are photographs that were taken of the finger along with stories of the huge creature that walked among humans, which the finger must have belonged to. Scientists and researchers have many mixed feelings about the relic.

One of the issues they have with the finger is that it does not fit in with conventional theories that have come from historians and archaeologists.

In fact, many have said that the finger could not possibly exist. But is the photographs proof that giant creatures did walk on planet Earth in Egypt or was the finger no more than a hoax?

Tutankhamun’s dagger of space origin, research suggests

Tutankhamun’s dagger of space origin, research suggests

Thousands of years later Pharaoh Tutankhamun, the king of a boy who ruled Egypt around 1332-1323 BC, has known his share of fame in a world thousands of years after his life. And the fame is sure to grow as an exciting new discovery set the international media on fire.

An Egyptian and Italian research team has just published a paper that reveals that King Tut’s beautiful dagger, already an object of admiration and wonder, turns out to have been made from a meteorite.

Yes, he had a space dagger.

The paper, with the immediately intriguing title “The meteoritic origin of Tutankhamun’s iron dagger blade,” reveals that X-ray analysis showed the dagger to be made mostly of iron, with small amounts of nickel and cobalt.

This particular combination of elements was the key to tracing the dagger’s origins to a meteorite.

“The introduction of the new composite term suggests that the ancient Egyptians… were aware that these rare chunks of iron fell from the sky already in the 13th century BCE, anticipating Western culture by more than two millennia,” write the researchers, led by Daniela Comelli, an associate professor at the Department of Physics of Milan Polytechnic.

This is remarkable in that it proves that Egyptians were well-versed in adopting iron, while the rest of humanity was still living in the Bronze Age.

In fact, the researchers see the quality of the dagger’s blade as indicative of Egyptian mastery of iron work.

The dagger, which was found in the wrapping of the mummified pharaoh in 1925, was analyzed utilizing X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, a technique that energetically excites various compounds within the object to compare different radiation wavelengths.

This allows researchers to figure out which elements are present without damaging the object.

Once they figured out the iron in the compound came from a meteorite, researchers looked back through historical records to pinpoint which meteorite it was.

They concluded it was the Kharga meteorite, which was found 150 miles west of the city of Alexandria, near the seaport city of Mersa Matruh (known as Amunia at the time of Alexander the Great).

Researchers also think that this finding adds special meaning to the term “iron from the sky” which was a hieroglyph found in ancient Egyptian texts.

Indeed, this discovery proves that even such famous historical finds as King Tut’s tomb can still reveal groundbreaking secrets about the life of the ancients.

Possibly 10,000-Year-old rock Art Discovered in Egyptian Cave

Possibly 10,000-Year-old rock Art Discovered in Egyptian Cave

CAIRO, EGYPT—Egymonuments Reports that rock art has been discovered in a cave at Wadi Al-Zulma in North Sinai. Aymen Ashmawi of the Ministry of Antiquities said the images resemble a raised relief style and are thus different from those found in South Sinai.

Many of the newly found engravings depict animals, including camels, deer, mules, mountain goats, and donkeys. Remains of circular stone buildings have been found in the area of the cave. 

The cave is located high on a hillside, overlooking the valley and it is made of limestone. It is quite difficult to access. The height of the cave is 60 feet (20 m) and 45 feet deep (15 m). In the cavern, the team of experts was shocked to find a large number of rock carvings that are of a type not seen before.

The ancient cave was found in a mountainous area in Northern Sinai.

Ayman Ashmawy, a senior official with the Egyptian Ministry of Antiquities told Egypt Independent that ‘this cave is the first of its kind to be found in the area’.

Sinai has a great many rock carvings and an important collection of them was found at al-Zaranji cave, earlier this year, in the south of the peninsula. 

Here a great many images were found that predated the Pharaohs and that possible date to 10,000 years ago. They were stylistically similar to other examples of cave art in the southern valleys of Sinai.

The rock carvings are of a type not seen before in the region.

Ayman Ashmawy told Egypt Independent that the newly explored ‘cave features an utterly unique assortment of carvings unlike those from the South Sinai valleys’. There are a great many more engravings than in the al-Zaranji cave.

The Director of Sinai Antiquities and head of the mission, Dr. Hisham Hussein told Egypt Today that ‘most of the scenes were carved along the walls of the inner cave’.

The carved images found in Northern Sinai are different from those found elsewhere in the Peninsula. They are more akin to bas-relief and the figures tend to be projected out of the surface of the cave walls.

The rock art found elsewhere in the area, such as those at al-Zaranji were made by chipping away the rocky surface of the caverns and apply pigments to color the engravings. 

Most of the carvings projected out of the surface of the cave walls.

Dr. Hisham told Ahram. online that the rock art depicts ‘animals, including camels, deer, mules, mountain goats and donkeys’. Some of the animals depicted have long ago disappeared from the area and this may help researchers to date the rock engravings.

Images of animals have also been uncovered in other caves in Sinai and other sites all around the world.

A great deal of animal waste and the remains of fires were found in the cave. This suggests that the local people still used the caves to shelter with their animals during the winter. It appears that the site had been used by people for millennia.

The carvings included animals such as camels, deer, mules, mountain goats and donkeys.

Ahram Online reports that ‘the remains of circular stone buildings were discovered’ and were unearthed near the location of the rock carvings. It was found some 140 feet (200 m) south of the site.

It is believed that these are the remains of an ancient settlement. It is not known if the settlement is contemporary with the rock art or if the people who lived there are responsible for the images deep in the limestone cave.

Dr. Hisham and his team will now record and catalogue the rock images. It is possible that more may be found elsewhere in the limestone cavern.

They will attempt to date the images based on their style and identify if they can be linked to any known historical society. It is too early to establish if the mysterious images were made by people from a previously unknown culture.

Researchers Find Ancient 3,600-Year-Old Mummy Near Luxor, Egypt

Researchers Find Ancient 3,600-Year-Old Mummy Near Luxor, Egypt

LUXOR, EGYPT—BBC reports that a wooden coffin containing a mummy, a small coffin made of mud, and funerary equipment dating to the 17th Dynasty (ca. 1635–1550 B.C.) were found in a mudbrick chapel in the Dra Abul Naga necropolis, which is located on Luxor’s West Bank.

The project chief, José Galán, clarified that during excavation activities in the area in front of Djehuty’s open courtyard these artifacts were uncovered.

The sarcophagus was mounted horizontally on the concrete. It measures 1.75 by 0.33m, and was carved in a woodcut from a single sycamore tree trunk, then coated with a whitewash and painted in red.

Inside the coffin was found the mummy of a 15- or 16-year-old girl resting on her right side. The mummy is in a bad conservation condition.

The mummy is wearing two earrings in one of her ears, both with a spiral shape and coated with a thin metal leaf, maybe copper.

It also had two rings, one made of bone and the other with a blue glass bead set on a metal base and tied with string. Four necklaces tied together with a faience clip are around the chest.

One necklace is 70cm long and made rounded faience beads, alternating dark and light blue.

The second one is 62cm long and made of green faience and glass beads.

The most beautiful is the third necklace which measures 61cm and is made of 74 pieces, combining beads of amethyst, carnelian, amber, blue glass, and quartz. It includes two scarabs, one depicting the falcon god Horus, and five faience amulets.

The fourth necklace is made of several strings of faience beads tied together at both ends by a ring combining all the strings.

At the opposite side of the mud-brick chapel, a small coffin made of mud was also found. It is still closed and tied together with string.

Inside there was a wooden ushabti wrapped in four linen bandages. The ushabti figurine and one of the linen bandages are labelled in hieratic text identifying its owner, “The Osiris, Djehuty,” who lived under the 17th dynasty (c.1600 BCE).

In the same area, but inside a funerary shaft, a pair of leather sandals was found together with a pair of leather balls tied together with string, also dating to the 17th dynasty.

“The sandals are in a good state of preservation, despite being 3,600 years old,” Galán noted. He added that they are dyed in a vivid red colour, and engraved with various motifs showing god Bes, goddess Taweret, a pair of cats, an ibex and a rosette.

From their decoration and size, he said, the sandals probably belonged to a woman, and also the balls, which were used by a woman for sport or as part of a dancing choreography, according to daily life depictions in Beni Hassan tombs of the 12th dynasty.