Canterbury Cathedral stained glass is among the world’s oldest

Canterbury Cathedral stained glass is among world’s oldest

According to recent research, stained glass windows in England’s famous Canterbury Cathedral might be centuries older than previously thought, with some panels dating back to the mid-12th century.

If accurate, the colourful panes would have witnessed the murder of Archbishop Thomas Becket in the cathedral by followers of King Henry II in 1170. The particular panels, which are installed over one of the cathedral’s entrances, depict the ancestors of Christ and had previously been thought to have been made by artisans in the 13th century.

If the revised date is accurate, it would make them among the earliest extant works of stained glass in the world. It would also restore a piece of the structure’s history long thought lost.

‘We have hardly anything left of the artistic legacy of that early building [apart from] a few bits of stone carving,’ Léonie Seliger, the cathedral’s head of stained glass conservation, told BBC News. 

‘But until now, we didn’t think we had any stained glass,’ Seliger added. ‘And it turns out that we do.’

The Ancestors of Christ stained glass panels at Canterbury Cathedral (above) date to 1130-1160, according to a new analysis, at least a decade before Thomas Becket was murdered in the church

Henry II initially appointed Becket as his chancellor, then nominated him as Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162, with the hope his confirmation would bring the Church of England more under the monarchy’ control.

But Becket discovered a newfound religious belief and worked to extend the reach of the archbishopric, recovering church lands lost to the monarchy and reestablishing the church’s jurisdiction over clergymen accused of committing secular crimes. He also excommunicated a number of Henry’s ministers and advisors and threatened the king with ecclesiastical punishments.

After Henry reportedly asked, ‘Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?,’ four knights rode to Canterbury and beheaded Becket in the cathedral’s northwest transept on December 29, 1170. In addition to Becket’s killing, the Ancestors of Christ panels ‘would have witnessed Henry II come on his knees begging for forgiveness, they would have witnessed the conflagration of the fire that devoured the cathedral in 1174,’ Seliger said.

Canterbury Cathedral in Kent, England, is one of the oldest Christian structures in Great Britain.

‘And then they would have witnessed all of British history.’

The oldest known stained glass windows are those at Augsburg Cathedral in Bavaria, Germany, completed in the late 11th century.

As far back as the 1980s, art historian Madeline Caviness had questioned the dates assigned to some of the Ancestors of Christ panels at Canterbury, pointing to noticeable stylistic differences. But disturbing the fragile works of art and worship was too risky.

A stained-glass window depicts the murder of Thomas Becket by Henry II’s knights, part of a series on the sainted archbishop in the cathedral’s chapel

Four decades later, researchers from University College London (UCL) designed a ‘windolyser,’ a portable device that shines a beam on glass, causing it to emit radiation that can be used to determine when it was created—similar to how spectrometry can determine the chemical composition of distant stars. Materials scientist Laura Ware Adlington, who led the research, says some of the Ancestor panels could date to between 1130 and 1160, at least a decade before Becket was killed.

Founded in 597, the Canterbury Cathedral was completely rebuilt between 1070 and 1077. It was initially thought the ‘Ancestors Series’ panels were installed after a fire devastated the building in 1174—over a period ranging from the late 1170s through until 1220. But data from the windolyser suggested they were there well before the fire and had been stored during reconstruction and added to the rebuilt cathedral.

Founded in 597, Canterbury Cathedral was completely rebuilt between 1070 and 1077 and again after a devastating fire in 1174

‘The scientific findings, the observations and the chronology of the cathedral itself all fit together very nicely now,’ Caviness, now 83, told BBC News.

‘I wish I was younger and could throw myself more into helping Laura with her future work. But I’ve certainly got a few more projects to feed her.’

Other panels in the famed house of worship have also been reconsidered: in 2019, researchers suggested stained-glass windows dated to the Victorian era really were constructed in the Middle Ages,

Rachel Koopmans, a medieval history professor at York University, said a panel depicting a group of pilgrims heading to Canterbury actually dates to the 1180s—a decade or so after Becket’s murder and some 200 years before Chaucer wrote about such a pilgrimage in Canterbury Tales. The window was part of a series in a chapel built in Becket’s honour—of the dozen created to tell his story, only eight remains.

‘The unique panel picturing travelling pilgrims allows us to see how the earliest pilgrims to Canterbury interacted and what they would have looked like, right down to the pilgrims’ wonderfully decorated boots,’ Koopmans told York University magazine in 2019. Using documents in the cathedral archives and an 1861 photograph of the window, she made her case about the pilgrimage window and she and Seliger secured permission to remove it for study.

Using digital photography technologies and spectrometry, they verified the glass in that window dated to the 1100s as well, nearly 800 years earlier than assumed. In medieval times, stained glass windows held significant importance, educating an illiterate populace about religious narratives.

‘They were the comic books of their day,’ Koopmans told the magazine. ‘They were designed as colourful bands to be read and admired by visiting pilgrims.’

Smuggled Old Kingdom Statue Returned to Egypt

Smuggled Old Kingdom Statue Returned to Egypt

According to an Ahram Online report, an Old Kingdom statue depicting the priest Nikau-Ptah has been returned to Egypt from an art gallery in the Netherlands.

The Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, in collaboration with the Egyptian Embassy in Amsterdam and the concerned authorities in the Netherlands, succeeded in repatriating an ancient Egyptian statue of an Old Kingdom priest Nikaw-Ptah that was stolen and illegally smuggled out of the country of Egypt.

The statue has arrived safely in Egypt and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has handed it over to the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities.

Shaaban Abdel-Gawad, the general supervisor of the Repatriation Antiquities Department, explains that the statue was put on sale at the annual European exhibition of fine arts, Tefaf, in Maastricht, Netherlands.

He added that the statue was illegally excavated and was not from the collection of any museum or archaeological site of the Supreme Council of Antiquities.

He pointed out that the statue is legless and features the priest standing and wearing a short skirt. His name is engraved on his right hand.

‘Jurassic Pompeii’ yields thousands of ‘squiggly wiggly’ fossils

‘Jurassic Pompeii’ yields thousands of ‘squiggly wiggly’ fossils

Palaeontologist Tim Ewin is standing in a quarry, recalling the calamity that’s written in the rocks under his mud-caked boots.

'Jurassic Pompeii' yields thousands of 'squiggly wiggly' fossils
Fossilised seafloor animals from the Jurassic, all piled on top of each other

“They tried to protect themselves, adopting the stress position of pulling their arms in,” he continues. “But it was all in vain; you can see where their arms got snagged open, right up to the crown. They were pushed into the sediment and buried alive.”

There’s a little smile creeping across Tim’s face, and he’s got reason to be happy. The misfortune that struck this place 167 million years ago has delivered to him an extraordinary collection of fossil animals in what is unquestionably one of the most important Jurassic dig sites ever discovered in the UK. We can’t be precise about the location of the excavation for security reasons, but you’ll recognise from the gorgeous, honey-coloured limestone that we’re somewhere in the Cotswold country.

Things have changed a bit since Jurassic times, though.

No quaint villages and dry-stone walls back then; these parts were covered by a shallow sea, maybe 20-40m deep. And it was a damn sight warmer than your traditional English summer. The movement of tectonic plates means Britain was roughly where North Africa is today. So you can imagine the types of creatures that would have been living on this ancient, near-tropical seafloor.

The fossils are in clay layers that intersperse the Cotswold limestone

Stalked animals called sea lilies were tethered to the bed in great “meadows”. Their free-floating cousins, the feather stars, were ambling by, looking to grab the same particles of food. And down in the sediment, starfish and brittle stars were feeling their way across the bottom with their fives arms, no doubt bumping into the occasional passing sea urchin or sea cucumber. It’s exactly this scene that’s preserved in the rocks of our mystery quarry. The quantities involved are astonishing. Not hundreds, not thousands, but perhaps tens of thousands of these animals that scientists collectively call “the echinoderms”. It’s a great name, derived from the Greek for “hedgehog”, or “spiny”, “skin”. What is a sea urchin, if not an “underwater hedgehog“?

Echinoderms- Animals of the sea floor

  • Some may look like plants but they are all animals
  • Skeletons are made from calcite (calcium carbonate)
  • They display radial symmetry, in multiples of five
  • They have no brain but do have a nervous system
  • Arms and tube feet are moved by pumping seawater
  • Lost parts can be regrown, much like a gecko’s tail

Most of what we know about the deep history of echinoderms from British fossils comes from the few specimens that emerged from railway cuttings and quarrying in the Victorian age. Tim Ewin’s institution, the Natural History Museum in London, has these items tucked away in a small space that will now be utterly inadequate to accommodate the truckload of new examples that is coming.

The individual calcite plates, or ossicles, that made up the skeletal frames are preserved

“In this age of a rock from the Middle Jurassic, only two species of starfish were known, represented by five specimens,” he says. “In just a few days of collecting here, we’ve got 12 starfish specimens, and expect to find many more.

“And it’s the same for the comatulids, or stemless crinoids (feather stars) – 200 years’ worth of collecting is represented at the museum by about 25 specimens. Here, we’ve probably got 25 specimens just under our feet, and we’ve collected over 1,000.”

The NHM was given only a few days in the private quarry to collect the specimens

But it’s also the quality of the preservation that’s jaw-dropping. Lean in close to a slab of rock that’s just been cleaned up and you’ll observe what, at first sight, reminds you of a plate of noodles. It is in fact a great mass of fossil arms from who knows how many sea lilies. You can clearly discern the individual calcite plates, or ossicles, that made up the skeletal frames of these animals when they were alive. What’s more, the specimens are fully articulated. That’s to say, all parts are still intact. Everything is captured in three dimensions.

“We talk about the fives (radial symmetry) in echinoderms. They’re all there; you can see them,” says NHM senior fossil preparator Mark Graham. Specialists in fossil echinoderms believe the Cotswold quarry will help them better categorise the species’ different life stages, their ecology and their proper position in evolutionary history. To paraphrase that old cliche: the textbooks might not need to be rewritten but some extensive notes will almost certainly have to be added to the margins.

The arms of another crinoid are imprinted on a piece of Jurassic wood

And the new learning will go wider still, says echinoderm specialist Jeff Thompson.

“We live in a changing world today, and if we want to understand how climate change might affect not only the future of humanity but of all life on Earth’s surface, then the echinoderms are one of the best groups to study,” he tells me.

“We know quite well what happened to them through a variety of mass extinctions, so their experience can be really helpful as we try to understand the major changes in biodiversity across geological time.”

Sally Hollingworth is half-standing, half-sitting at the edge of a pool of muddy water. She’s busy trying to ease yet more feather stars from the clay layers that intersperse the quarry’s limestone units.

She’s gently prodding with a spatula, attempting to get under the specimens to lift them without breaking them.

“I call them ‘squiggly wigglies’,” she laughs. “The stalked crinoids, I call those ‘stalkie walkies’.”

It’s Sally and her husband, Neville, that the NHM have to thank for finding this marvellous site. The pair are keen amateur palaeontologists. They spend their weekends investigating the Cotswold hills and their surrounds, looking for interesting rocks. The most promising items they take home to “his and hers” studios (a shed and a garage) where they use air abrasion tools to lift off any obscuring sediment. It was while cooped up during lockdown that Sally and Neville first identified the potential of the quarry. After examining the location on Google Earth and comparing it with geological maps of the area, they sought permission from the landowner for a recce, which Sally says seemed somewhat underwhelming at the time.

“We were finding only tiny fragments of Jurassic sea creatures and we said, ‘well, OK, let’s take a slab home and see what we can reveal if we can clean it up’,” she recalls.

“I remember Nev shouting from the garage, ‘Sal, Sal! You’ve got to come and have a look at this!’ It was this beautiful sea lily emerging, coming to life, from the slab.”

Anatomy of a Crinoid (Sea Lily)

  • Sea lilies are the stalked variety of crinoids
  • Adult animals anchor themselves to the seabed
  • Their crowns are pointed into the water current
  • Feathery pinnules catch floating food particles
  • This detritus is propelled down towards a mouth

When Tim Ewin was notified, he immediately recognised the quarry’s importance and arranged for an expert team to come in and conduct a systematic search. Sally and Neville, far from being pushed aside by the professionals, are integral members of the group. Their local knowledge and homemade elderflower cordial are greatly appreciated.

Working the site is a mucky business. Recent rains have turned the floor of the quarry into a mud bath, and the precise and careful process of fossil excavation means the researchers have no choice but to get down on their hands and knees in the sticky mess.

“Some nice things are being protected by overturned food trays. It might not look like it in all this mud but there are actually some places where we’re not supposed to put our feet,” says NHM curator Zoe Hughes. “But there’s such an abundance, it’s maybe not such a concern,” quips colleague Katie Collins. “There’s such a bonanza of stuff.”

Slabs go through a triage process to select the best fossils for future study

The focus is those clay layers. These hold the mass of echinoderms. The context appears to be a busy swathe of sea-bottom where nutrients were constantly being delivered to the site. You see this in the occasional chunk of Jurassic wood that pokes out from the goo. Maybe there was a delta not far away that was directing food-laden waters to this scene. This can explain the abundance of fossil animals but it doesn’t explain their supreme preservation. For that, we have to return to the idea of a calamity. The clue to the drama is recorded in the harder, more sand-rich bands of clay – a signal of a sudden shift towards a more energetic environment.

“What we have is something very suggestive of a dramatic mudflow,” explains Zoe. “We have this happy little ecosystem and then, boom! – something catastrophic happens.

“Perhaps there was an earthquake that caused the mudslide and this came in and covered everything up. This is why the preservation is so amazing because the scavengers couldn’t then get to all those animals to pick them apart.”

As Neville Hollingworth likes to put it: “What we’ve got here is a sort of Jurassic Pompeii.”

NHM senior fossil preparator Mark Graham cleans up the fossils using a blast of air and powder

Modern crocodile’s ‘grandfather,’ 150 million years old, discovered in Chile fossil

Modern crocodile’s ‘grandfather,’ 150 million years old, discovered in Chile fossil

A 150-million-year-old fossilized skeleton discovered in the mountains of southern Chile was determined to be the ancestor of the modern crocodile, the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences announced on Friday.

Fossilized bones of the Burkesuchus mallingrandensis are pictured, in Buenos Aires

The species, named Burkesuchus mallingrandensis, was found in 2014 in an Andean fossil deposit near the Patagonian town of Mallin Grande by Argentine and Chilean researchers. Since then it has been analyzed at the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences (MACN) in Buenos Aires.

The specimen is a “grandfather” of current crocodiles and should allow scientists to understand how they evolved, the museum said.

Technicians Marcelo Isasi, Marcela Milani, and palaeontologist Nicolas Chimento work on the excavation of pieces of the Burkesuchus mallingrandensis, in the Aysen region of Chilean Patagonia

Scientists believe the fossil will help them understand how these reptiles went from being terrestrial to aquatic. Along with other fossils, the discovery supports the idea that South America was the cradle of evolution for crocodiles.

About 200 million years ago “crocodiles were smaller and did not live in water. Palaeontologists always wanted to know what that transition was like,” Federico Agnolin, who found the specimen, told Reuters.

“What Burkesuchus shows is a series of unique traits, which no other crocodile has because they were the first that began to get into the water, into freshwater,” Agnolin said.

Modern crocodile's 'grandfather,' 150 million years old, discovered in Chile fossil
Palaeontologist Fernando Novas holds the fossil skull of the Burkesuchus mallingrandensis

According to the MACN, crocodiles appeared at the beginning of the Jurassic period, around the time of the first dinosaurs.

In a few million years they got into the water, thanks to the existence of warm and shallow seas. South America is known for its richness in marine crocodile fossils.

Archaeologists discover a 6th-century coin hoard in ancient Phanagoria

Archaeologists discover a 6th-century coin hoard in ancient Phanagoria

“Treasures are not often found,” explains Vladimir Kuznetsov, head of the Phanagoria archaeological expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. “As a rule, they are evidence of catastrophic events in people’s lives, as a result of which the one who hid money or valuable items was unable to return and use their savings.

A rare find made by archaeologists in July this year is associated with a dramatic and mysterious page in the history of medieval Phanagoria – the capital of one of the earliest Christian dioceses in Russia.”

This was the third season of the Phanagoria expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The archaeologists are examining when the city was destroyed in a fire, which may have taken place as the result of an attack by Huns or Turks. Residential buildings, wineries, public buildings perished in the fire, and a large amount of ash, soot, fragments of burnt wooden floors of buildings, broken dishes and the remains of burnt grain in amphoras speak of a significant scale of the disaster. Finds associated with this event include a broken marble countertop and a baptismal font, which bear witness to the destruction of an early Christian basilica nearby.

In previous years, a gold coin of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I (527 – 565) was found in the layer of fire. It made it possible to establish the date of the catastrophe: the second or third decades of the 6th century. Not far from this find, in a layer of conflagration, the treasure of copper coins of the 2021 season was found.

“The very context of his find speaks of the extraordinary circumstances under which he was hidden, of the sudden attack of enemies,” said Vladimir Kuznetsov. “In a hurry, a resident of Phanagoria hid a bundle with 80 coins in the throat of an old broken amphora that had turned up under his arm and covered the hole with earth.

Copper staters found in 2021.

Similar events took place elsewhere. For example, in the neighbouring town of Kepy, the owner of one of the houses managed to hide the treasure in the hearth, but he himself was killed by an arrow near it. And at the settlement “Volna1” the treasure of gold was wrapped in a rag and thrown into a utility pit, its owner managed to put part of the coins under a stone, and spilled the other on the floor of the house. In the city of Kitey, on the opposite side of the Kerch Strait, the stater treasure was hidden in a home stove.”

Phanagoria was part of the Bosporan Kingdom, a Greco-Scythian state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula in the Black Sea region. The kingdom lasted for about 800 years before declining at the end of the fourth century AD.

As the researchers explained, according to the composition of the treasure, one can determine what money was in use in the internal market of the Bosporus in the 6th century.

These are copper staters of the Bosporan kings of the late III – first half of the fourth century. The last issue of the Bosporan coin was carried out in 341; later, no money was minted in the Bosporan. However, a huge mass of staters made of cheap copper-lead alloy continued to circulate in the Bosporus for several centuries. The role of “expensive” money was played by Byzantine gold: that is why the treasure of copper coins and the solidus of Justinian were found almost nearby.

Expansion of the Bosporan Kingdom from the 5th century BC to the 1st century AD.

Researchers believe that the unique finds are associated with turbulent historical events in the Bosporus in the sixth century when the Bosporus cities voluntarily became part of the Byzantine Empire.

The transition of the Bosporus from the rule of the nomadic Huns to the rule of Byzantium took place during the reign of Emperor Justin I in 518-527. Perhaps the first mention of the episcopal see in Phanagoria in 519 is connected with this event: the Phanagorian bishop John put his signature on the documents of the Patriarchal Synod in Constantinople, to which the Phanagorian diocese was directly subordinate.

The Byzantine writer Procopius of Caesarea noted that Kepa and Phanagoria were “taken and destroyed to the ground by the barbarians who lived in neighbouring lands.” It is customary to associate these events with one of the two fires of the 6th century, traces of which archaeologists have identified in Phanagoria.

Who and when destroyed Phanagoria in the 6th century? Some researchers associate the events described by Procopius of Caesarea with the nomadic Huns.

They defeated the Byzantine garrison in the city and killed the military leader (tribune). At the turn of the 520s and 530s, Emperor Justinian I dispatched a mercenary army, reinforced by the Goths. The city of Bosporus (Kerch) was returned to the rule of Byzantium. Perhaps at the same time, Kep and Phanagoria returned under the rule of Byzantium.

According to another version, the destruction of the cities of Kepa and Phanagoria, as reported by Procopius of Caesarea, took place already in the middle of the 6th century, when the Avars who fled under the pressure of the Turks approached the Bosporan Kingdom: a message about this event is found in Evagrius Scholastica’s “Church History”. The Turks themselves appeared in the region in the 570s.

In Phanagoria, as in other nearby cities, archaeologists have discovered two layers of 6th-century fires. The first, early layer of the conflagration, in which shells from throwing machines were found, testifies that in the first half of the 6th century Phanagoria was devastated and destroyed. These events are associated with the revolt against Byzantium of its vassal – the Hunnic leader Gord (Grod) in 528 or 534.

The second layer of the fire in Phanagoria dates back to the end of the 6th century and is associated with the events of 576 – the campaign of the Turks against the Bosporan Kingdom when most of the fortresses and small towns of the Kerch and Taman peninsulas were damaged.

“The gold coin of Justinian I found two years ago in Phanagoria serves as proof that the new treasure is associated with the second, late fire of the 6th century. But who exactly – the Avars or the Turks – destroyed the capital of the Phanagorian diocese remains unknown so far. The new treasure from Phanagoria is invaluable evidence of historical events and the economy of the early Middle Ages” added Kuznetsov.

Arkaim: Stonehenge of Russia and its Unspeakable Secrets

Arkaim: Stonehenge of Russia and its Unspeakable Secrets

Who in his life had never heard of Stonehenge? An enigmatic prehistoric monument north of the city of Salisbury, England, for more than 5,000 years, today it is a place that continues to develop speculation and theories beyond rationality.

At ground level, the Stonehenge ruins look a bit casual and chaotic, but the aerial view reveals the ring’s order. The place began modestly around 3100 AD. Pr. Kr. Like a wide ring of wooden poles surrounded by a ditch and a bank. In about 1,500 years, famous giant rock slabs, some brought from hundreds of miles away, have been placed in the interior.

The terrain was excavated, radiographed, measured and examined. Despite everything that has been learned about its age and construction, its purpose remains one of the world’s greatest mysteries.

It’s no secret, though, that Stonehenge isn’t the only megalithic circle of stones in the world. Some exist as collections of circles, such as the Senegambian circles in the Gambia, Senegal, which are considered a single circle on the world list but are actually made up of more than 1,000 to 15,000 individual monuments spread over a territory of 100 km wide and 350 km in length

There are many of these Neolithic sites in Britain, but they do not have a monopoly on the Henges. Some of the most interesting Neolithic monuments stand out within the borders of the former Soviet Union. Arkaim is one of those forgotten places, but they are an important part of the mysterious constructions.

Arkaim, beyond the history books

Arkaim: Stonehenge of Russia and its Unspeakable Secrets
Reconstruction of Arkaim archaeological site in Russia.

Some consider the Archaic to be the most important and enigmatic archaeological site in Northern Europe. This site is embroiled in controversy and is sometimes called Stonehenge, Russia. It is located on the outskirts of the Chelyabinsk region, south of the Urals, slightly north of the border with Kazakhstan.

According to experts, Arkaim is a remnant of an ancient settlement, which is essentially a village fortified by two large round stone walls. The enigmatic site covers an area of ​​about 20,000 square meters and consists of two house wheels separated by a street with a central square. 

Discovered by a team of Russian archaeologists, causing a wave of excitement throughout the archaeological community. The site and its artefacts dating back to the 17th century. Pr. AD, and it is thought to have been built 4,000-5,000 years ago, which is interesting to attribute to the same age group as Stonehenge.

Arkaim aerial view.

Arkaim has another name, it is called swastika in the city or, alternatively, the city of Mandala. It has this name for several reasons: first, if you use fantasy, the layout of the homes around the central square almost looks like a swastika. As we all know, the swastika is a sign of appropriation of the Nazi and so-called Aryan races and was adopted by modern groups of white chiefs. 

The second reason is that they originated from the Sintashta culture, which is an Indian and Iranian race from the ancient Eurasian steppes or, more generally, an Aryan race. So there are those who argue that Archim is actually the birthplace of the higher white race. While few in basic science see any value in this reasoning, there are changes.

Secrets of arching

Comparison of Stonehenge and Arkaim.

There are more interesting secrets on the site, such as linking it to a politically incorrect aspect of our culture. This was of great interest to archaeoastronomical, hence the reason for his connection with Stonehenge. Some experts said Stonehenge was built for astronomical observations. In fact, it is technically known as an observatory. This is because Stonehenge has allowed and may still allow the observation of 10 astronomical phenomena using 22 elements, and some argue that Archim allows the observation of 18 phenomena using 30 elements.

This basically means that certain events in the sky could be observed and followed by the area in certain ways and from different situations and that Arkaim offers more observable events than Stonehenge itself. In other words, it would seem that Arkaim is an even better astronomical observatory than its namesake. According to Russian archaeologist KK Bystrushkin, Stonehenge offers a 10-degree arc observation accuracy of one degree, and Arkaim offers a 1-minute arc accuracy. This precision is unheard of in the time allowed, descending from the ancient Greek Almagest, built 2,000 years later.

So it may seem obvious to some, but the fact that these places were built apparently deliberately to function as astronomical observatories and even as certain calendars until the same experience was achieved in the great founding empires like the Egyptians. and the Greeks are apparently strong evidence for attributing the further development and sophistication of these prehistoric cultures.

But apart from their history, it is interesting that Stonehenge and Archim are in the same latitude. However, “Arkaim” has also become a reference point for the UFO community, it is already customary to observe many UFOs, strange flashes of light in the sky or even some mysterious fog moving like an intellectual object.

But in addition to the well-known area, Archim also has a much more mysterious area where excavations are still taking place and visitors are not allowed. Even conspiracy theorists warn that not even the locals themselves fall into the mysterious area. Experts believe this theory is due to the energy flowing throughout the area, with unimaginable power that can make anyone lose their head.

There was a case where an archaeology student claimed to have heard a voice calling her from the centre of the building. She approached what happened next, only she knows. Over time, he said, he accepted the ghosts of the former inhabitants of Archim. Apparently, she reached another dimension and couldn’t stand it, she had to be admitted to a psychiatric centre. On closer analysis, curiously similar incidents occurred after the discovery of the Egyptian pyramids.

Because of all these mysterious phenomena over the centuries, the locals have always believed that it is a sacred place. An example can be found in the fact that pilgrims travel all year round to get healing water from the nearby river Bolshaya, and also used clay in the summer to treat various diseases.

Is our true origin hidden from us?

Mysterious structures such as Arkaim offer clues to the existence of an unknown or lost civilization in our distant past. Arkaim is just one example of rich archaeological gifts hidden deep in Russia. The country’s industrial progress has lost similar places, such as Sarkel, a limestone and brick fortress built by the Khazar culture in the 830s or 840s and flooded by the Russian government in 1952 due to the construction of the Tsimlyansk depository.

A similar aspect could be seen all over the world, but due to secrecy and the lack of cooperation between governments, or even to eradicate our origins, they have not yet been researched, analyzed, let alone discovered places that could decipher our true origins.

Discovery at Dartmoor mine rewriting more than 1,000 year’s worth of history

Discovery at Dartmoor mine rewriting more than 1,000 year’s worth of history

A new discovery at a Dartmoor mine in England dates human activity there back potentially by more than 1,000 years. Initial examination of waste deposits at Kelly Mine, an iron ore mine near Lustleigh, reveals that iron-smelting occurred there far earlier than the contemporary mining activity for which the site is renowned.

Kelly Mine, which operated from the 18th century until 1951, produced a unique type of iron oxide that was utilized for a number of industrial applications.

A concentration of slag was discovered when volunteers were repairing one of the old mine workings, and it turned out to be leftovers from bloomery smelting, an ancient method used to make wrought iron from iron ore.

Dr. Lee Bray, an archaeologist at Dartmoor National Park, has been inspecting and recording the fragments.

He said: “The finds are very exciting because it puts the history of human activity at Kelly Mine back probably by over a thousand years, certainly much earlier than the 18th Century.

An exciting discovery has been made at Kelly Mine on Dartmoor

“The types and quantities of slag present suggest iron was being produced on a relatively small scale, probably just for local needs.

The material looks unlike the typical waste from Medieval or Roman iron production, and it is possible we are looking at evidence for prehistoric smelting on the site. It’s a valuable insight into a lesser-known part of Dartmoor’s history.”

“While its tin mining and industrial sites attract lots of attention, it’s fascinating to discover fresh information that shows a wider range of minerals have been exploited in the region.”

Kelly Mine is one of Dartmoor’s important industrial historical sites. The first reference to workings dates to around 1797 but the first official record of the mine is in 1877.

It ultimately shut down in 1951.  For years, the equipment and location sat idle until 1984, when the landowner leased the property to a group of mining enthusiasts.

Mexico to bury archaeological find because of virus costs

Mexico to bury archaeological find because of virus costs

The tunnel is part of a 2.5-mile-long network of dikes.

In a strange turn of events, researchers in Mexico have announced they plan to rebury an unusual archaeological monument found in the outskirts of Mexico City – covering up an important historical discovery until some unknown time in the future.

The discovery in question is a tunnel built centuries ago as part of the Albarradón de Ecatepec: a flood-control system of dikes and waterways constructed to protect the historical city of Tenochtitlan from rising waters.

Tenochtitlan, widely viewed as the capital of the Aztec Empire, featured numerous dam systems to prevent flooding from torrential rains, but Spanish conquistadors failed at first to appreciate the ingenuity of this indigenous infrastructure, destroying many of the pre-Hispanic constructions in the early years of Spanish colonization.

Mexico to bury archaeological find because of virus costs

However, after numerous floods inundated the early colonial Mexico City, the Albarradón de Ecatepec and other flood-control systems like it were built or repaired in the early 1600s.

Centuries later, archaeologists with the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH) discovered one such feature within the Albarradón de Ecatepec, finding in 2019 a tunnel that preserved a unique synthesis of the cultures that created it.

This small tunnel-gate measured just 8.4 meters (27.5 ft) long, representing only a tiny part of the colossal Albarradón de Ecatepec monument, which in total extended for 4 kilometres (2.5 miles), built by thousands of indigenous workers.

But while it was small, it was still an important (and unusual) discovery, with researchers finding several pre-Hispanic glyphs displayed in the structure.

In total, 11 symbols were discovered – including representations of a war shield, the head of a bird of prey, and raindrops, among others.

It’s thought the symbols may have been built into the tunnel by non-Hispanic residents from the towns of Ecatepec and Chiconautla, who helped to construct the Albarradón de Ecatepec.

A war shield and a bird of prey’s head are two of the Pre-Hispanic symbols discovered in the Mexican tunnel.

While the dike featured pre-Hispanic iconography, its overall architecture suggested the Spanish were in charge of the design.

“One objective of our project was to know the construction system of the road, which has allowed us to prove that it does not have pre-Hispanic methods, but rather semicircular arches and andesite voussoirs, lime and sand mortars, and a floor on the upper part, with stone and ashlar master lines,” researchers explained in 2019.

“Everything is Roman and Spanish influence.”

The discovery was intended to be made into a public exhibit so that people could visit and inspect this unusual, centuries-old fusion of Aztec and Spanish cultural elements, but unfortunately, it’s not to be.

Researchers from INAH have now announced that due to a lack of funds to properly construct the exhibit and protect the remarkable structure, the recently discovered tunnel section will now have to be covered up once more – with the tunnel to be reburied so that it doesn’t become damaged, vandalized, or looted from.

According to the researchers, the decision is largely due to the ongoing economic impacts of the COVID-19 crisis in Mexico, which has so far claimed over 237,000 lives.

The researchers say they will construct special masonry to protect the glyphs, and then recover the painstakingly excavated site with earth.

It’s not every day archaeologists have to ‘undiscover’ the cultural treasures they reveal in the ground. Here’s hoping it won’t be too long before this section of the Albarradón de Ecatepec gets to see the light of day once more.

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