Category Archives: POLAND

7,000-Year-old Horned Face Image found Under Ancient Polish Home 

7,000-Year-old Horned Face Image found Under Ancient Polish Home 

In the area of a large, prehistoric settlement populated by a group identified by specialists as the Linear Pottery culture, the discovery in Biskupice was completed.

Marta Korczyńska, Field Work Chief at the Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences said:  “The fragments of pottery that we discovered are decorated with a plastic ornament depicting a stylized outline of a human face. There are two bumps on the forehead, reminiscent of horns.”

She added that only a part of the unusual ornament has survived, including the eyes and nose. The preserved fragment measures approx. 10 cm in width.

This photo clearly shows the eyes, nose and two bumps over the eyes that are presumed to be horns.

Project leader Dr Magdalena Moskal-del Hoyo from the W. Szafer Institute of Botany PAS said: “Today we are not able to clearly interpret this image. It seems likely, however, that such an unusual artefact could be related to the sacred sphere to some extent.”

According to Professor Marek Nowak from the Institute of Archaeology of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, who was also involved in the research, this type of artefact is evidence the inhabitants of the settlement had contact with people living in the area of today’s Hungary and Slovakia.

This is indicated not only by the discovery of the broken bowl, but also products made of obsidian, a raw material not found in Poland. It is a volcanic glass with a black and shiny surface.

Korczyńska said that while vessels with similar ornamental motifs are known from that period in Slovakia and Hungary (although they usually do not have stylised horns), this is the first such object been found in Poland.

The archaeologists also found over 3,000 artefacts, including obsidian tools and so-called cores, stone blocks used to strike stone flakes and chips that were later used to make tools. These products were primarily used as leather scrapers, tools for processing wood and bones, and sickle blades.

In addition to archaeologists, experts in the field of botany are also involved in the project. ‘It may be surprising that the employees of the Institute of Botany PAS conduct archaeological research, but in this interdisciplinary project, next to ceramics and other artefacts, plant remains are an equal, unfortunately often overlooked source of information on material culture and old customs’, said Dr Moskal-del Hoyo. 

She added that the remains of plants from sites dating back to the early Neolithic period (the time when farming began) were and are relatively rarely collected and studied by excavation leaders. 

Meanwhile, in her opinion, they can provide very important information about the people of the time and their crops.

The project is financed by the National Science Centre.

1,000-year-old Christian cemetery yields terrifying discoveries

1,000-year-old Christian cemetery yields terrifying discoveries

It is suspected that the nearly 1,000-year-old find is the oldest known Christian burial site in north Poland’s Dobrzyn Region. In the year 966 Poland formally accepted Christianity, switching from paganism to Catholicism.

In the village of Starorypin Prywatny, archaeologists have now discovered possible proof of Christianity, unearthing the corpses of women and children in 30 graves.

Lead archaeologist Dr Jadwiga Lewandowska of the Dobrzyn Land Museum in Rypin said: “Until now, based on uncovered artefacts, we thought the necropolis dated back to the 12th century.

“Thanks to the physicochemical analysis of bones discovered last year, we know that it already existed in the middle of the 11th century.”

The burial site yielded a number of gruesome discoveries, including the body of a woman with a boulder on her chest. Another woman was buried on her side in the foetal position. It is likely the woman was tied up when she was buried.

A 1,000-year-old cemetery was discovered in northern Poland

And the majority of the bodies uncovered at the site were of children. These were children aged two-and-a-half to four-years-old. One of the burials also appears to have been a premature birth.

Professor Krzysztof Szostka of the Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw said: “What is interesting, it was in this grave that we found probably the most beautiful necklace we have so far been able to find at the cemetery.”

The oldest corpses were of men aged 40 to 45-years-old. And the women were all likely aged 25 to 30-years-old. The corpses all featured grounded down teeth, which is a sign of a diet heavy in poorly refined flour.

Alongside the corpses, the archaeologists discovered a number of small metallic crosses – evidence of the denizens’ Christian faith.

Dr Lewandowska said: “The wealth of the deceased’s items surprised us.”

From the 13th century and onwards, Christians were buried without personal effects.

And the cemetery is likely to yield many more discoveries in the years to come as only a small fraction of it has been explored so far. The 30 graves are part of a necropolis believed to cover nearly five acres of land.

So far, the archaeologists have only explored a few hundred square metres of it. The cemetery was discovered in a cornfield and, unfortunately, many of its graves have been destroyed by the ploughing of the land.

None of the bodies unearthed at the site has been linked to other religious practices outside of Christianity. The archaeologists believe this is good sign Christianity reached this part of Poland earlier than the mid-11th century.

A trove of nazi artefacts found inside the wolf lair; Hitler’s headquarters On the Eastern Front

A trove of nazi artefacts found inside the wolf lair; Hitler’s headquarters On the Eastern Front

In 1941, when the Nazis first planned to enter the Soviet Union under Operation Barbarossa, they constructed a secret Military Headquarters next to the Mountains ‘ Masurian woods; they called it Wolfsschanze or “Wolf’s Lair.” The finding included the armoured doors a staircase to Hitler’s personal barracks and a barrier made to withstand a chemical attack.

The Polish government has made preparations to restructure the lair as an extensive historical museum since its discovery after the war However a trove of secret Nazi artefacts has been discovered by recent work at the military complex.

According to Heritage Daily, Polish officials found a number of significant items, among them the stairs to Adolf Hitler’s barracks, two bunker doors — one of which is believed to be part of the dictator’s personal bunker — and several armoured doors as well.

These discoveries will help researchers to map out where significant events took place in the lair, like a 1944 assassination attempt that was made on Hitler.

“We were convinced that for decades the area had been extensively dug and thought that there would be no more discoveries left to find,” said Zenon Piotrowicz, the forest inspector of the Srokowo forest division.

Excavators have also recovered water fittings for the bunker’s boiler, pipes, and sinks. These explorations have been carried out by the Laterba Foundation from Gdańsk in collaboration with State Forests and the Provincial Conservator of Monuments in Olsztyn.

An assassination attempt was made on Hitler here in 1944.

Among the most notable finds of late is an engraved stone emblazoned with Hitler’s special protection battalion and a painted flag.

According to officials, these new items will likely be kept for an exhibition at Wolf’s Lair, which is already a tourist site that draws revenue for the Masurian Lake District.

“The discovery allows us to determine what barracks they lived in and how the unit was marked,” added Piotrowicz. “It is also necessary to find a context for displaying the find so that it can be presented as a historical fact, without promoting a criminal ideology.”

Indeed, the proposed historical exhibit at Wolf’s Lair has drawn criticism from sceptics who believe that it will be challenging to display the ugly history of this site in a meaningful and appropriate manner.

Those who oppose the creation of an exhibit at Wolf’s Lair are concerned that the location could possibly become a pilgrimage site for neo-Nazis.

Last year, the Wolf’s Lair was visited by 330,000 tourists.

Hitler visits Nazi officers at Wolf’s Lair just days before a coup tried to kill him there.

The Wolf’s Lair was an important site for Hitler and his Nazi henchmen during the Second World War. Not only was it the first significant military base the Nazis established on the Eastern Front, but it also provided their fascist leader with high-level security.

Hitler was so confident that his hideaway in the Masurian woods was impenetrable that he even stayed at the complex for 850 days during the war. It wasn’t until the Nazi defeat appeared imminent that he moved back to his bunker in Berlin. The complex was subsequently destroyed by fleeing Nazis.

But the Wolf’s Lair is also a notable historical site due to a failed assassination plot that took place there in July 1944.

On July 20, 1944, a group of German leaders tried to kill Hitler during a meeting at the Wolf’s Lair. The plot, known as Operation Valkyrie, was led in part by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg, a high-ranking militiaman descended from German nobility.

Hitler is said to have spent 850 days hidden away in the Wolf’s Lair.

The plan was to detonate a bomb hidden away in a briefcase placed near Hitler during a meeting held at the lair. Four men were killed but Hitler miraculously survived. All the men involved in the assassination plot were executed.

As for the future of Wolf’s Lair, there is hope that the new exhibition there will be done in a way that pays tribute to the victims of the Nazis and that will ultimately inform future generations about these grave mistakes of the past.

Archaeologists unearth 18th Century Sex Toy in Ancient Latrine in Poland

Archaeologists unearth 18th Century Sex Toy in Ancient Latrine in Poland

Archeologists have found a 250-year-old sex toy during an excavation of an old toilet in Poland. During an excavation at an old school of swordsmanship in the coastal town of Gdansk the eight – inch leather dildo with a wooden head was discovered.

A 250-year-old sex toy has been found by archaeologists during a dig of an ancient toilet in Poland.

A spokesman for the Regional Office for the Protection of Monuments in Gdansk, said: ‘It was found in the latrine and dates back to the second half of the 18th century.

‘It is quite thick and rather large, made of leather and filled with bristles, and has a wooden tip that has preserved in excellent condition. It was probably dropped by someone in the toilet.

‘Whether that was by accident or on purpose is anyone’s guess though.’
Archaeologists at the site earlier discovered old swords leading them to suspect that the place was once a school of swordsmanship.

The artifact has now been taken away for preservation work.
Dildos have been found in some form throughout history, with Upper Palaeolithic artifacts previously discovered is said to be likely used for sexual pleasure.

For thousands of years, phallic objects have been used symbolically as a means to boost fertility and ward off evil spirits – but their use as sexual aids has a long history, too.

A 28,000-year-old phallus recently found in Germany is quoted as being the oldest known ‘sex toy’ ever found.

While phalluses made from stone, wood, leather, and even camel dung have all be found during excavations, or referenced throughout historical text and images.

And an Austrian museum even has the world’s oldest condom on display together with four other condom fragments dated from around 1650.
These were found in a toilet at Dudley Castle in England.

The 28,000-year-old siltstone phallus found in the Hohle Fels Cave.

Historical references to the use of sexual aids date back millennia. It is known that both male and female Romans and Greeks used phallic objects for pleasure.

In Aristophanes’ anti-war comedy “Lysistrata” (411 BC), which tells of one woman’s mission to end the Peloponnesian war, women discuss using sex toys in order to withhold sex from their husbands in an effort to stop the war.

In the Middle East, historical reports refer to Egyptians using camel dung coated in resin as sexual aids.

In the famous collection of folk tales, “One Thousand and One Arabian Nights,” which traces its roots back to ancient and medieval Arabic, Persian, Indian, Egyptian, and Mesopotamian folklore and literature, dildos are discussed as being made from gold, silver, or intricately carved ivory.

The Greeks are believed to be the first to use leather or animal intestine to cover a carved penis, adding a more natural feel.

Phallic objects were not just used for sexual pleasure, however. In ancient Greece, ‘hysteria’ was believed to be a medical condition caused by a meandering and misbehaving uterus caused by a lack of “hysterical paroxysm” (orgasm).

Famous physician Hippocrates believed the condition caused all manner of symptoms, including insomnia, emotional instability, headaches, and general ill-health.

Women were instructed to use ‘olisbos’ (stone or wood sex toys) to prevent the onset of hysteria.

The belief that women could suffer ‘hysteria’ from a lack of sex continued all the way into the early 20th century with Medieval and Renaissance physicians carrying out the‘ genital massage’ of their patients to cure them of their woes.

Unique 3,500-year-old Pig Figurines Discovered in Poland

Unique 3,500-year-old Pig Figurines Discovered in Poland

During excavations at a Bronze Age house in a settlement surrounded by Europe’s oldest monumental stone wall, two clay-pig figurines dating back 3,500 years were uncovered.

The discovery by archaeologists on Zyndram’s Hill in Maszkowice (Małopolska) has been hailed as a rare find as they are the first of their kind.

Research leader Dr. Marcin S. Przybyła from the Institute of Archaeology of the Jagiellonian University said: “These are the first such find of zoomorphic figurines, that is, ones depicting animals.”

He added that the artefacts are small, only a few centimetres long, but very carefully made, with anatomical features, including nipples.

One is brighter, pale brown in colour, the other was fired to be quite dark. In the case of the latter, the animal’s nose is brighter. According to the archaeologist, this is probably accidental, but thanks to this the figurine becomes even more realistic.

He said: “There is no discussion as to what kind of animal it is. You have to remember that pigs back then looked more like wild boars than modern-day domesticated pigs.”

Each of the figurines was made in a slightly different style, in a different manner, as if they were made by two different people.

Presentation of the archaeological find in the form of 3.5 thousand years old pig figurines, August 13th, Maszkowice (Małopolska). This is quite a rare find. The settlement where the discovery was made is surrounded by a stone wall, which is unique for settlements from this period in this part of Europe.

The figurines were inside the relics of a hut, just a metre apart. 

The discovery was made in a residential house from the early Bronze Age (approx. 3,500 years old). There were many animal bones (of pigs, cattle and predators) in the building, clearly more than in other structures identified so far within the fortified settlement. 

The arrangement of post-pits, whose task was to support the roof, was also surprising – three of them were right next to each other.

The house was probably rectangular or square (the size of a typical cottage in this place is 6 by 6 m or 8 by 6 m). Its walls were made of a lightweight braided structure covered with a thick layer of clay. The wall could be about 20 cm thick.

According to Przybyła, the figurines could have been used as children’s toys or cult objects.  Archaeologists are continuing restoration work within the walls of the settlement which was discovered a few years ago.

Dr Przybyła said: “The fortifications defending the settlement are more than two and a half thousand years older than the monuments of Romanesque architecture. Thus, it is the oldest example of a stone wall in the history of construction in Poland.”

This year’s research shows, among other things, that the walls were built on large, flat sandstone slabs (approx. 1.6 m long), which formed a perfectly flat surface.

According to the researcher, they look like screed and it is clear that the fortifications were made in a very thoughtful way, and the builders had experience in similar projects.

Equally, old stone structures are not known in this part of Europe. Researchers are convinced that the know-how associated with their construction came with settlers from the Mediterranean or the Adriatic zone.

Further evidence of this is the discovered fragments of ceramic vessels. Their forms indicate contacts with the communities living in the middle Danube basin.

According to researchers’ estimates, the settlement was suddenly abandoned ca. 1550-1500 BC. However, there are no traces of an invasion or disaster.

While there was a large fire more or less in the middle of its functioning, the wooden houses were later rebuilt. They were larger than the previous ones, but fewer of them were erected.

Medieval Bridges, Artifacts Found in a Polish Lake

Medieval Bridges, Artifacts Found in a Polish Lake

POZNAŃ, POLAND—According to a report in The First News, archaeologists from Nicolaus Copernicus University and the Museum of the First Piast at Lednica used photogrammetry to map the bottom of west-central Poland’s Lake Lednica, which is located between the city of Gniezno, site of the country’s first capital, and Poznań, the seat of the country’s first Christian bishop.

A 10th-century sword which is decorated with a cross and has the remains of its leather scabbard was discovered along with artifacts dating back to the times of the first Piast by archaeologists exploring Lednica Lake, between Poznań and Gniezno.

Scientists from the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń and the Museum of the First Piast at Lednica have conducted research in and around the lake since 1982, though the first works were done there in the fifties. 

The 10th-century sword complete with the remains of a leather scabbard is likely to have belonged to someone of status and power.

Ostrów Lednicki was an important point on the early Piast dynasty Poland’s map, located between the first capital in Gniezno and Poznań, where the first bishop in the country had his seat.

Head of the University’s Centre for Underwater Archaeology professor Andrzej Pydyn said: “This is probably the richest season in a dozen years. Not only because of the number of objects, but also their value and the context in which they were found.”

The researchers focused on the area near two bridges connecting islands Ostrów Lednicki, Ledniczka, and the shore, found in 2017.

The younger bridge dates back to the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, while the older to the beginning of the 10th. The wood used for its construction was cut down in the years 913 and 914.

The bridges are a marvel on their own – measuring several hundred meters, they were an incredible undertaking at that time.

Underneath the bridges’ remnants, the archaeologists uncovered 21 objects, including the early medieval ornamented sword and two axes, other weapons such as arrowheads and crossbow bolts from the 13th and 14th centuries, as well as a sickle from that period.

Professor Pydyn said: “The most spectacular finding of this research season is the eighth sword found in Lednica Lake, the first in 20 years. But also the spearhead, axes, including the encrusted axe, probably one of the more spectacular ones found here.”

The notable 10th-century sword and axe couldn’t belong to a regular warrior and point to people of the importance of travelling to Ostrów Lednicki. The axe, similar in style to Scandinavian ones, was inlaid with silver and adorned.

The sword was decorated with a cross, a common European trope, but a rare find considering the place and time when it was made. Other findings include ceramics and animal bones.

Using photogrammetry (measuring and scanning the place to create a model), the researchers mapped the bottom of the lake and even 1.5 meters below it and created a detailed 3D model of the area.

The method led to another discovery, which provided new information on the settlement’s role and size. The most valuable seems to be the remains of the shore fortifications, most probably made of solid oak beams.

The finds date back to the times of Duke Mieszko I.

The age of one of them has already been determined by the dendrochronological method. The tree was cut down in 980, during the reign of Duke Mieszko I, the first documented ruler of Poland.

Professor Pydyn said: “They shed completely new light on what took place in this area. Actually, we are becoming certain, that the entire area of settlements around Ostrów Lednicki was important not only in the times of Mieszko I but also for his father or grandfather.”

Evidence of Medieval Battle Discovered in Polish Forest

Evidence of Medieval Battle Discovered in Polish Forest

In a forest in Sanok, hundreds of arrowheads and crossbow bolts from a major battle with King Casimir the Great in the 14th century were found.

Archaeologists unearthed the huge find during an investigation to find out why the area was being plagued by illegal treasure hunters.

Biała Góra archeologists say they believe that they now locate Casimir’s Great campaign battleground in Red Ruthenia (formerly part of southeastern Poland and Ukraine).

Archeologists who were wondering why so many illegal treasure hunters flocked to a peak in Słonne Mountains and part of Sanok’s Wójtostwo district, decided to investigate

The hundreds of arrowheads and crossbow bolts come from the 14th century.

Already well-known for being the site of a medieval settlement, the last time it had been officially researched was 50 years ago.

Dr. Piotr Kotowicz from the Sanok Historical Museum told PAP: “We decided to use the same research method and invited the Galicia Historical and Exploratory Association’s representatives to work with us.

“The results of the research exceeded our wildest expectations. During several seasons, in the area around the fortified settlement, we found more than 200 arrowheads and bolts.”

It is still unclear who fought whom and why, but the archaeologists believe that the objects may be a sign of a 14th century battle between Polish and Ruthenian forces.

According to chronicles, in 1340 Casimir the Great with an army of 20,000 conquered several fortified settlements in the area. Kotowicz is convinced, that the latest findings in Sanok can be linked to that particular military campaign.

Shortly afterward, between 1340 and 1344, Red Ruthenia was incorporated into Poland permanently after the death of duke Bolesław – Jerzy II.

Dr. Kotowicz said: “It seems that the caves and bolts we discovered are a testimony of fights between Ruthenians and Poles.

“The analysis of the caves’ spread shows that most of them were concentrated in the stronghold’s area and right next to it.

“We also searched the area around it for ‘response’ to the attack. However, we did not find too many caves with weapons.

“This means that the defenders were dominated by the invaders and their response to the attack was minimal.”

The fortified settlement on Biała Góra was rather small, surrounded by one line of fortifications and dry moat. According to the recent findings, it was heavily damaged during the battle. The arrowheads and bolts weren’t the only surprises that awaited Dr. Kotowicz’s team.

In the area around the fortified settlement the archaeologists found more than 200 arrowheads and bolts.
In the area around the fortified settlement the archaeologists found more than 200 arrowheads and bolts.

A nearby patch of flattened land hid numerous artifacts of older origins – even from the 9th or 10th centuries. Among them is the first Arabic coin from the Middle Ages, dirham, found in Sanok.

Dr. Kotowicz believes that these are the remains of an industrial settlement, as evidenced by numerous cinders – iron ore was probably melted there.

Medieval “plague” mass grave discovered in north Dublin

Medieval “plague” mass grave discovered in north Dublin

According to an Irish Central report, walkers in North County Dublin spotted bones eroding out of the surface of the ground during a period of drought this spring.

Examination of the bones by osteoarchaeologist Maeve McCormick revealed they belonged to a boy who was about 12 years of age at the time of his death.

The 12-year – old skeletal remains were found in River Valley Park, Swords, North County Dublin in April 2020. The bones that have now been extracted from the test area date back to the 15th century.

The skeletal remains of a 12-year-old, found in Swords, earlier this year are believed to be part of a plague burial ground.

Experts at the National Museum of Ireland said the bones became exposed due to the unseasonably dry weather in March and April. 

Sadly, due to COVID-19 restrictions, the site could not be excavated. However, Fingal County Council told the Irish Times that with the easing of restrictions the examination has begun.

The site where the remains were found by walkers is a recorded archaeological monument, where archaeologists from the National Monuments Service excavated six skeletons in 1999.

They said the bones “were medieval in date and as the burials were deposited in an irregular fashion within a flood plain it was thought they may reflect some form of communal hasty burial of victims of plague or other trauma.”

The excavation was undertaken by Maeve McCormick, of Archer Heritage Planning Ltd, under license from the Department of Culture, Heritage and the Gaeltacht in consultation with the National Museum.

McCormick, an osteoarchaeologist, indicated that the latest skeleton unearthed was a juvenile, probably between ten and 12 years of age and that these remains are part of a burial site excavated in the area, in 1999.

Radiocarbon dating of the animal and human remains will allow them to get a precise timeline for the site.

Fingal County Council’s Heritage Officer Christine Baker says this analysis will “add to the story of this burial ground”. 

“We are also investigating the most appropriate means to suspend the erosion of the site and will continue to work with the National Monuments Service and the National Museum of Ireland to protect this archaeological monument,” she said.