Category Archives: POLAND

A pendant made of mammoth bone with ‘mysterious dots’ could be the oldest known example of ornate jewelry in Eurasia

A pendant made of mammoth bone with ‘mysterious dots’ could be the oldest known example of ornate jewelry in Eurasia

A pendant made of mammoth bone with ‘mysterious dots’ could be the oldest known example of ornate jewelry in Eurasia

The fragments of an ancient pendant made of mammoth ivory were unearthed in Poland, and are regarded to be the oldest known example of intricate jewelry ever uncovered in Eurasia.

Archaeologists discovered it in the Stajnia cave in southern Poland in 2010, and new radiocarbon analysis has dated it to roughly 41,500 years ago from when Homo sapiens were in Europe.

The Stajnia Cave is one of the most important archaeological sites due to the finds of the first remains of Neanderthals in Poland, and several tens of thousands of flint artifacts from the Middle Palaeolithic.

Researchers said the Stajnia Cave plate is a piece of personal ‘jewelry’ that was fashioned 41,500 years ago (directly radiocarbon dated). It is the earliest known of its sort in Eurasia, and it marks a fresh beginning for a practice that is closely related to the expansion of modern Homo sapiens in Europe.

The oldest evidence of body decoration in Europe is found about 46 ka BP in the Initial Upper Paleolithic strata of Bacho Kiro, where multiple carnivore teeth were fashioned into pendants.

The Stajnia Cave is one of the most important archaeological sites due to the finds of the first remains of Neanderthals in Poland, and several tens of thousands of flint artifacts from the Middle Palaeolithic.

A new novel accessory—the alignment of punctuations—appeared on certain ornaments in south-western France and figurines in the Swabian Jura (Germany) as part of these revolutionary accessories.

Researchers wrote, so far the majority of these distinctive adornments have been found during earlier digs, with little identification of site formation histories or post-depositional disruption. They said As a result, rather than direct dating, their chronological attribution has relied only on stratigraphic context.

Reporting their discovery in Scientific Reports, the archaeologists said The first news: “The decoration of the pendant included patterns of over 50 puncture marks in an irregular looping curve and two complete holes.”

They added that each puncture could represent a successful animal hunt or cycles of the moon or sun.

Sahra Talamo, who led the study, said: “Determining the exact age of this jewelry was fundamental for its cultural attribution, and we are thrilled with the result.

The archaeologists said: “The decoration of the pendant included patterns of over 50 puncture marks in an irregular looping curve, and two complete holes.” They added that each puncture could represent a successful animal hunt or cycles of the moon or sun.

“This work demonstrates that using the most recent methodological advances in the radiocarbon method enables us to minimize the amount of sampling and achieve highly precise dates with a very small error range.

“If we want to seriously solve the debate on when mobiliary art emerged in Palaeolithic groups, we need to radiocarbon date these ornaments, especially those found during past fieldwork or in complex stratigraphic sequences.”

Co-author Wioletta Nowaczewska added: “This piece of jewelry shows the great creativity and extraordinary manual skills of members of the group of Homo sapiens (Homo neanderthalensis) that occupied the site.

“Plakanın kalınlığı yaklaşık 3,7 milimetredir ve delikleri ve onu takmak için iki deliği oyma konusunda şaşırtıcı bir hassasiyet gösterir.”

To read the article…

Polish archaeologists co-discover ‘unique’ Roman military tower

Polish archaeologists co-discover ‘unique’ Roman military tower

Polish archaeologists co-discover ‘unique’ Roman military tower
El Mellali site with visible remains of the tower.

A Polish-Maroconian team of archaeologists have discovered a Roman military observation tower in Volubilis, Morocco. ‘This is important for research on the system of Roman fortifications built on the outskirts of the empire’, says Maciej Czapski, an archaeologist from the University of Warsaw.

Similar military observation towers had been previously discovered during excavations in Scotland, Germany, and Romania, but never in Morocco.

From the 5th decade CE, Morocco was part of the Roman Empire, but since it was geographically isolated, from a scientific point of view little is known about this region and archaeologists treat it as a niche.

‘Based on satellite images, we have selected several sites that have a common feature: an oval plan with an inscribed rectangle or square. We have chosen this particular site because it is located farthest to the south. There are a few brief descriptions of this site in French publications indicating that the place could have been associated with the Roman army’, says Czapski.

The researcher adds that preparations for excavations included dozens of hours spent in libraries in Rimini and London but this and the analysis of satellite images did not guarantee success.

“We were lucky to have started digging in the right place. Just a 500-600 m shift of the starting point would have resulted in finding nothing. Our discovery is a significant contribution to the general state of research on the Roman limes – the system of Roman border fortifications, erected on the outskirts of the empire, especially vulnerable to raids’, says Czapski.

Excavation work at the eastern wall of the observation tower.

Included amongst the find were the foundations and fragments of walls preserved up to a height of approx. 80 cm. A fragment of the internal staircase and a fragment of cobblestones surrounding the building on the south side have also been preserved. The outer wall has not survived. Tile fragments are in very bad condition.

The researchers also found fragments of weapons and accessories of Roman legionnaires.

“We found fragments of javelins, nails from sandals of Roman legionnaires, fragments of ornaments typical for Roman military belts,” says Czapski.

“Until now, we had a very broad dating – we knew that there was a defence system of the Roman province between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE. We want to narrow down the chronology and explain whether it was a single system or different systems at different times. We have a hypothesis that the system we discovered existed during the reign of Antoninus Pius. We have some military finds dating back to this period, around the 2nd century CE,” says Czapski.

He adds that “a lot is known about the military and political situation of this region. We know that battles were fought, but we do not know the details – what their course was, whether they were very heavy, and to what extent. We know that in some cases it ended with signing treaties as a result of diplomatic activities, but we do not know the details.”

The main focus of the Polish-Moroccan team is determining how the Romans maintained the acquired territories and what were their contacts with the local population.

“We are dealing with the relations between the administration and the local population. We know that these relations were quite turbulent because epigraphic evidence confirms it. We want to find out how the Romans controlled the flow of people and goods, that is, how they controlled the border zone’, says Czapski.

The head of the Polish part of the research team Dr. Radosław Karasiewicz-Szczypiorski from the University of Warsaw, and the Moroccan team leader is Professor Aomar Akerraz from the National Institute of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (INSAP) in Rabat. The team consists of 10 people.

In the near future, the researchers plan to complete the documentation and publish a report. Next year, after the end of Ramadan, they will begin field work at a different site. They hope to discover more towers, which would help to “complete the concept of the Roman defence system.

“Next year, at the turn of May, we will dig at a different site. The discovery of another tower should be easier. We now know where to dig and what to expect,” says Czapski.

Crypts, Tunnel Discovered Beneath Knights Templar Chapel in Poland

Crypts, Tunnel Discovered Beneath Knights Templar Chapel in Poland

Crypts, Tunnel Discovered Beneath Knights Templar Chapel in Poland
The Knights Templar constructed the Saint Stanislaus chapel in the Polish village of Chwarszczany during the 13th century.

Around 1119, in the midst of Christian Crusades to wrest the Holy Land from Muslim control, a French knight named Hugues de Payens formed a small military order dedicated to defending pilgrims as they travelled from West to East.

Known today as the Knights Templar, the group (and various legends surrounding its history) has captured the public imagination for centuries.

As Patrick Masters, a film studies scholar at the University of Portsmouth, wrote for the Conversation in 2019, 13th-century epics and Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code alike link the order to the mythical Holy Grail—albeit with little supporting evidence.

Over the years, physical traces of the organization’s existence have yielded insights into its actual role in medieval society. In villages across the West Pomeranian region of Poland, for instance, 13th-century Gothic buildings created by the knights upon their return from the Holy Land testify to the order’s lasting influence.

Now, reports Małgosia Krakowska for CNN, an ongoing archaeological dig at a Knights Templar chapel in a remote Polish village of about 100 residents is offering up an array of exciting new discoveries.

Last fall, a research team using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) uncovered a number of crypts, as well as the possible remains of an underground passageway or tunnel, while conducting excavations at the chapel of Saint Stanislaus in Chwarszczany.

“According to legends and medieval documents, there was a well in the vicinity of the chapel,” Przemysław Kołosowski, the lead archaeologist working on the site, tells CNN. “Rumor has it that the well served as an entrance to a secret tunnel. This still requires an exhaustive archaeological investigation.”

Interior of the chapel of St. Stanislaus.

As Jakub Pikulik reported for the Polish newspaper Gazeta Lubuska last year, renovations and archaeological work at the site have been ongoing since 2004. Kołosowski’s team commenced work in July 2019, scanning the chapel and surrounding fields with the help of a hundred or so volunteers.

An excavation expected to unearth a medieval fortress yielded no substantial findings from the period. But archaeologists did discover centuries-old cobblestones, the walls of an 18th-century distillery, Bronze Age pottery and iron nails, and a 1757 coin likely left behind by Russian troops stationed nearby during the Seven Years’ War.

Inside the chapel, archaeologists investigating a small depression beneath the stone floors found seven vaulted crypts.

As Per a statement from OKM, the German manufacturer of the GPR technology used by the researchers, these underground crypts “cannot be dated back to Templar times.” Instead, Gazeta Lubuska notes, the crypts were likely constructed later, only to be emptied during renovations in the second half of the 19th century.

Built on the site of an older Romanesque temple in the second half of the 13th century, the red-brick Chwarszczany chapel was “both a place of worship and a defensive fortification,” according to Sarah Cascone of artnet News.

At the time, the Knights Templar wielded significant power in western Poland, local historian Marek Karolczak tells CNN.

“Back in those days, the appearance of Knights Templar on this soil was a popular trend,” Karolczak explains. “This is the time of the Crusades. Local rulers wanted to strengthen their power by inviting military orders to settle on their land and build commanderies.”

Because the Knights Templar were protected by the pope, they “enjoy[ed] papal privileges, tax breaks and lavish donations while also accruing legendary status,” reports CNN. But the group’s luck changed in the early 14th century, when Philip IV of France ordered members’ arrest, perhaps out of a desire to seize their vast wealth or assert his political dominance over the papacy, writes Mark Cartwright for Ancient History Encyclopedia.

Those arrested were tortured into giving false confessions of homosexuality and sacrilege, and in 1312, Pope Clement V officially disbanded the religious order.

1000-year-old Sword uncovered in Southern Poland

1000-year-old Sword uncovered in Southern Poland

An almost one-metre-long sword estimated to be around a thousand years old has been found in southern Poland. Historians say it is one of the most valuable discoveries in the region in a long time.

The sword was found only 30 centimetres below ground level near the village of Lewin Klodzki, close to the border with the Czech Republic, by Konrad Oczkowski who is exploring the area with the permission of archaeologists.

No remains were found alongside the sword to indicate who its owner was, and neither were any other metal objects.

1000-year-old Sword uncovered in Southern Poland

Mr. Konrad Oczkowski explored the site with our permission and with all the permits – said archaeologist Marek Kowalski from the Wałbrzych branch of the Lower Silesian Monuments Conservation Department. – On Monday morning, he informed us about the possible discovery of an archaeological monument.

Mr Konrad was very professional. Since he was not an archaeologist, after removing the layer of soil and realizing it was a sword head, he covered and masked the monument with earth, marked the find’s location in a familiar way, and notified the conservation services. On Tuesday, July 19, archaeological services emerged at the site and picked up medieval weapons from the ground.

The sword is in good condition. However, it was deposited directly in the ground, so it was partially corroded due to oxygen ingress. The shaft is separated from the rest, and the blade is cracked at the blade.

The sword was found in a place that restorers do not want to disclose yet. The fact is that there was a settlement in the area before 1945, but its origins date back only to the 17th century.

“Such a sword is priceless,” said archaeologist Marek Kowalski, quoted by Gazeta Wyborcza daily.

“It had the value of one or even several villages. So it undoubtedly belonged to some knight. Such things were not simply abandoned.”

It is not yet known whether the sword ended up underground in the 11th century or later. However, the expert who inspected the weapon, Dr Lech Marek from the Institute of Archaeology at the University of Wrocław, has no doubts regarding the sword’s age, said Kowalski.

“Identical swords have been excavated at Ostrów Lednicki, where one of the most important castles of the Piast state was,” Kowalski added, referring to the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland, which ruled Poland until the 14th century.

The first Piasts, probably of West Slavic and Lechitic tribe descent, appeared around 940 in the territory of Greater Poland (Wielkopolska).

The archaeologists speculate that there may have been a fortress near the site where the sword was found. In the 11th century, Bolesław the Brave, the first king of Poland, who was in conflict with the Czechs, ordered his son, Mieszko II, to invade Bohemia, today the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech Republic.

The sword will now be subjected to a historical analysis, examined for metallography using CT scans in an attempt to find inscriptions despite the corroded surface, Kowalski told Gazeta Wyborcza.

This might help the researchers to determine where the sword was made and who was its potential owner.

Traces of Original Manor Found at Poland’s Branicki Palace

Traces of Original Manor Found at Poland’s Branicki Palace

Traces of Original Manor Found at Poland’s Branicki Palace

A fragment of the floor of a large 15th-16th century building, probably from the times of the first owners of the Białystok estates was discovered by archaeologists during the work in the parade courtyard of the historic Branicki Palace in Białystok. They believe that it is an important discovery in the history of the city.

Archaeological work in the parade courtyard of the Branicki Palace began last week as a result of an agreement between three universities in Białystok: the Medical University of Białystok, which is located in the palace, the Białystok University of Technology and the University of Białystok. This is the first such research project at the place.

Later last week, the Museum of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy of the Medical University of Białystok informed on social media about the discovery of 15th-16th century relics. “It is a fragment of a stone and clay floor of a large building, probably dating from the times of the first owners of the Białystok estates,” the museum reports.

The discovery was confirmed by the head of the archaeological work, Dr. Maciej Karczewski from the University of Białystok.

He told PAP: “During these four days of work, we managed to uncover a very large part of the previously unknown history of this place. I am very pleased with that result.”

He added that it was a real ‘time travel’ from the 20th to the 15th-16th century, with fragments of prehistory.

According to Karczewski, the 5 by 5 meters excavation was dug in a place where previous GPR surveys had shown a number of anomalies (differences in the density of layers indicating human intervention).

He continued: “This outline anomaly turned out to be a very solid floor made of clay and field stones, which probably supported the structure with wooden walls that have not survived.”

Dating back to the 15th-16th century, the floor fragment is part of a manor belonging to the Raczkowicz family, the first owners of the Białystok estates.

Karczewski said: “The layout of the manor complex remained completely unknown until now. The size of this anomaly indicates that it must have been a large building, and the tiles found in this place may indicate that the building could have been located close to the manor house.”

Three hundred years were lost during the exploration of the layers, directly under the layer from the first half of the 20th century/end of the 19th century, the 15th-16th-century layer immediately appeared. 

According to Karczewski, it is most likely the result of cleaning the area during the Russian partition or in the interwar period. He added that although there were no surviving layers from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, individual fragments of relics from that period were found, including ceramic tiles from the time of the court of Piotr Wiesiołowski, a glass vessel and a John II Casimir copper shilling called boratynka.

In the part of the excavation where there is no floor, archaeologists also found traces of a prehistoric settlement. According to Karczewski, the oldest discovered relic is a Mesolithic burin. It is a hard material tool made of flint. Karczewski estimates that it comes from the 5th-7th millennium BCE.

In addition, the archaeologists found traces of the early Iron Age, the stroke-ornamented ware culture, a population that participated in the ethnogenesis of the Slavs but is recognized in the areas of today’s Belarus, and Podlasie was the western periphery of this population’s range. 

Karczewski said: “In the place of today’s palace courtyard they had their settlement, camp.”

For now, the dig is 70-80 cm deep. Drilling is to be carried out by the Białystok University of Technology, and archaeological work will resume.

The two-week research in the parade courtyard is conducted as a survey. As previously reported by the Medical University of Bialystok, it will cost approx. PLN 20,000.

The Branicki Palace is one of the most iconic places in the city and the region. The beginnings of the palace and garden complex date back to the 16th century. The place achieved its greatest splendour during the time of Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki in the 18th century. At that time, Białystok had one of the most beautiful baroque gardens in Poland, and even in Europe.

Previous archaeological research in the vicinity of the palace was carried out mainly in gardens; the entrance courtyard and gardens were revitalized a few years ago.

Decorative Heater Unearthed at 16th-Century Castle in Poland

Decorative Heater Unearthed at 16th-Century Castle in Poland

Decorative Heater Unearthed at 16th-Century Castle in Poland
Fragment of a cocklestove tile.

Beautiful Renaissance cockle stove tiles with the quality and style matching those from the Wawel Royal Castle in Kraków have been discovered during research in the ruins of the stronghold in Żelechów (Masovian Voivodeship).

The research was conducted in August by archaeologists and historians from the Institute of Archeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences. 

During this season, they focused on exploring the remains of the 16th-century court and the earlier, late medieval buildings located in the same place. The structures were part of a wooden castle.

Aerial view of this year’s excavations in Żelechów.

The head of research Wojciech Bis from the Institute of Archeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences told PAP – Science in Poland that excavations made it possible to determine that the wooden building used in the 16th century was destroyed by fire.

The archaeologists unearthed burnt beams and layers of burnt clay, which could have covered the walls and floor of the structure.

However, the most spectacular find – according to the researchers – turned out to be the remains of a cockle stove, which probably heated the representative room of the court.

Fragment of a cockle stove tile.

Bis said: “Among its remains, we found numerous, beautifully decorated tiles with rich geometric, plant and animal patterns. There were also images of fantastic animals, including griffin, human figures and coats of arms.”

Several hundred fragments of tiles have survived. They were mostly covered with colourful enamel: green, yellow, white and blue. According to the researchers, they probably ornamented a single cockle stove, the clay base of which has also survived.

So far, the researchers are unable to say where they originated from. 

Fragment of a cocklestove tile.

However, the researchers say stoves covered with similar tiles decorated the Renaissance interiors of the Wawel Royal Castle. Some of them, especially decorative tops or tiles with rosette motifs, are almost identical stylistically to those at Wawel.

Research project participant, historian Maciej Radomski from the Institute of Archeology and Ethnology at the Polish Academy of Sciences, said: “This proves that this building served representatives of the then social elites of the Commonwealth.”

In addition to Renaissance tiles, scientists found fragments of ceramic vessels. Among them were thin-walled table dishes designed for serving meals and kitchen utensils for the preparation of dishes.

They included pots and pans on three legs. In addition, numerous post-consumption animal bones with traces of cutting and chopping were found, mainly from pigs and oxen. This is evidence of abundant feasts at the castle.

Fragment of a cocklestove tile.

Archaeologists also discovered coins. The oldest of them is the silver penny Wenceslaus IV (1378-1419), as well as several copper schillings minted during the reign of John II Casimir, called Boratyki. In addition, interesting finds from the researchers’ point of view were two spurs discovered near the 16th-century court building, probably lost in the muddy surroundings of the buildings.

The wetland, swampy area promotes the preservation of many artefacts, including wooden structures. Many of them have survived to this day, which is not a common phenomenon among the remains of buildings from hundreds of years ago, the researchers emphasise.

The search for the Żelechów castle took several years. Historians knew from a few mentions that there was a stronghold in this town in the Middle Ages. Its relics were located a few years ago with ALS and other methods that do not even require driving a shovel into the ground. It is located northwest of the Żelechów market, near fish ponds.

The excavations started in 2017. In subsequent seasons of excavations, the researchers managed to unearth well-preserved wooden fragments of the medieval castle. It was previously thought that underground there were massive brick or stone remains of the foundation of the structure.

Archaeological excavation in Żelechów.

The castle was not lucky. It was probably built in the mid-15th century and most likely abandoned by the Ciołek family at the beginning of the 16th century. According to the researcher, disagreements between magnates contributed to this. The seat of the Ciołek family was temporarily taken over by Feliks of Zielanka.

Before the middle of the 16th century, the castle probably returned to the hands of previous owners, but soon a significant part of the buildings was consumed by fire. It continued to function in some form and operated until the mid-17th century, as evidenced by coins from the later period discovered during excavations, the researchers believe.

Numerous volunteers, members of the Żelechów Historical Society, the Municipal Engineering Department in Żelechów and the Volunteer Fire Brigade in Żelechów were involved in this year’s research. The implementation of research was financially and organizationally supported by the Żelechów municipality. Excavations were conducted courtesy of the plot owner, Stanisław Kawka.

Archaeologists unearth remains of 17th-century female “vampire” in Poland

Archaeologists unearth remains of 17th-century female “vampire” in Poland

Vampire folklore across cultures is filled with various tips on how to keep a recently deceased person from rising from the grave as an undead fiend who preys on the living.

Archaeologists unearth remains of 17th-century female “vampire” in Poland
Archaeologists discovered what may be the skeleton of a 17th-century female “vampire” near Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Now archaeologists have uncovered an unusual example of people using these tips in a 17th-century Polish cemetery near Bydgoszcz: a female skeleton buried with a sickle placed across her neck, as well as a padlock on the big toe of her left foot.

Tales of vampire-like creatures date back at least 4,000 years to ancient Mesopotamia. For instance, the Assyrians feared a demon goddess called Lamastu (literally, “she who erases”), who they said killed babies in their cribs or while still in the womb. Other ancient texts mention a similar creature, Lilith—who also appears in Hebrew texts and folklore—who steals away infants and unborn children. Neither of these could be considered “vampires” in the modern sense, but they are the precursors to the Greek legend of Lamia, an immortal monster who sucked the blood from young children.

In Chinese folklore, another type of proto-vampire, called the k’uei, were reanimated corpses that rose from the grave and preyed on the living, as were the Russian upir, Indian vetala, Romanian strigoi, and Greek vrykolakas.

News reports specifically referencing vampires didn’t appear in English until 1732, as suspected “epidemics” of vampirism caused a mass hysteria that swept across Eastern Europe.

 By the 19th century, most of Europe was consumed by vampire hysteria, inspiring writers like John Polidori (“The Vampyre,” 1819), Sheridan LeFanu (Carmilla, 1872), and of course, Bram Stoker, whose Dracula (1897) pretty much spawned the modern vampire genre.

Archaeologists excavating a 17th-century cemetery near Bydgoszcz in Poland.

Naturally, the fear evoked by the presumed existence of such creatures inspired many different approaches to ensuring that the dead stayed dead. In the early Middle Ages, Russian villagers would exhume suspect corpses and destroy the body by cremation, decapitation, or by driving a wooden stake through the heart. Stakes were often secured above corpses upon burial, so the creature would impale itself if it tried to escape.

In Germany and the western Slavic regions, suspected vampires were decapitated, and the head was buried between the feet or away from the body. Other strategies included burying corpses upside down, severing the tendons at the knees, or—in the case of Greek vrykolakas—placing crosses and inscribed pottery fragments on the chest of the deceased.

In places where vampires were believed to suffer from arithmomania, poppy seeds or millet seeds would be scattered at the site of a suspected vampire. (The X-Files episode “Bad Blood” humorously used this bit of folklore with Mulder’s favorite snack, sunflower seeds.)

The first early medieval graves in the region near Bydgoszcz were discovered between 2005 and 2009, when archaeologists recovered jewelry, semi-precious stones, a bronze bowl, and fragments of silk clothing.

Dariusz Poliński of the Nicholas Copernicus University led the archaeological team that returned to the site earlier this year in hopes of discovering more artifacts. That didn’t happen, so they turned their attention to a nearby 17th-century cemetery in the village of Pień instead.

The burial is unusual because a sickle was placed across the neck—presumably to decapitate the corpse if the woman tried to “rise” as a vampire.

That’s when the researchers identified the grave containing the female skeleton. Other examples of anti-vampire burials have been found in Poland, according to Poliński.

Several skeletons with severed heads were found in 2008, for example, and a body with a brick forced into the mouth and holes drilled through the legs was also found. “Ways to protect against the return of the dead include cutting off the head or legs, placing the deceased face down to bite into the ground, burning them, and smashing them with a stone,” said Poliński.

Nonetheless, this latest find is unique. While there have been reports of people placing scythes or sickles near a grave as an offering to prevent demons from entering the body, the placement of this sickle was different. “It was not laid flat but placed on the neck in such a way that if the deceased had tried to get up, most likely the head would have been cut off or injured,” said Poliński. As for the padlock on the big toe, “This symbolizes the closing of a stage and the impossibility of returning.”

Another unusual feature is that the skeleton appears to be that of a woman of high social status, given the care with which she was buried. There were also remnants of a silk cap on her head, which would not have been affordable for a member of a lower class. As for why she would have been buried in such a way, Poliński said that she had very noticeable protruding front teeth. This may have made her appearance different enough that she was deemed a witch or vampire by superstitious locals.

1930s Medicine Bottle Found in Poland’s Gwda River

1930s Medicine Bottle Found in Poland’s Gwda River

Archaeology enthusiasts have uncovered a perfectly preserved pharmaceutical bottle with herbal ‘heart’ drops from the 1930s, alongside the remains of a medieval clay pot from the bottom of a river.

1930s Medicine Bottle Found in Poland’s Gwda River
Archaeologists from the Stanisław Staszic Regional Museum in Piła stumbled upon the discovery while combing through the river Gwda in western Poland.

The team led by Dr Jarosław Rola from the Stanisław Staszic Regional Museum in Piła stumbled upon the discovery while combing through the river Gwda in western Poland.

The oldest discovery was a large fragment of a clay pot from the end of the early medieval period, dating back to between the 12th-13th century, which was found in the river near the town of Motylewo.

The oldest discovery was a large fragment of a clay pot from the end of the early medieval period, dating back to between the 12th-13th century.

The oldest discovery was a large fragment of a clay pot from the end of the early medieval period, dating back to between the 12th-13th century.Stanisław Staszic Regional Museum in Piła

News of the discoveries was announced by the museum on their Facebook page alongside a film of each of the objects found.

Introducing the second find, the museum wrote: “The Gwda conceals many secrets and surprises.

“Among this year’s discoveries, we find a curiosity: a pharmaceutical bottle, almost certainly from the 1930s, with perfectly preserved contents.

“They are herbal drops for the stomach or heart.

The latest archaeological search of the Gwda is part of studies of the river which have been ongoing for a number of years.

Up until now, the river has turned up a 2,000-year-old drinking mug and a fragment of a 17th-century bridge.

The latest objects found will be added to the collections of the Stanisław Staszic Regional Museum in Piła.