Category Archives: TURKEY

Is This Man-Made Underground Complex ONE MILLION Years Old?

Is This Man-Made Underground Complex ONE MILLION Years Old?

While most researchers and scholars around the globe agree that human civilization as we know it only has only existed for some 12,000 years on our planet, there are countless discoveries that point toward a much different past.

There are many findings ranging from temples, structures, and artefacts that are evidence of advanced civilizations that inhabited Earth much sooner than mainstream scholars suggest. However, many of these incredible findings have been considered as impossible due to the fact that they alter our written history in every possible way.

In recent years, many researchers have started looking at the history of the civilization on Earth with an open mind. One of those researchers is without a doubt, Dr. Alexander Koltypin, a geologist, and director of the Natural Science Research Center at Moscow’s International Independent University of Ecology and Politology.

During his long career, Dr. Koltypin has studied numerous ancient underground structures mainly in the Mediterranean and has identified numerous similarities which have led him to believe that many sites were interconnected. But most incredibly, the weathering of the structures together with their material composition and extreme geological features has led him to believe these megastructures were built by advanced civilizations that inhabited Earth millions of years ago.

Writing on his website Dr. Koltypin states:

“When we examined the constructions… none of us never for a moment had a doubt that they are much older than the ruins of the Canaanite, Philistine, Hebraic, Roman, Byzantine and other cities and settlements that are placed on it and around.” 

During his travel to the Mediterranean, Dr. Koltypin was able to accurately record the features present in different ancient sites, something that allowed him to compare, afterwards, their incredible similarities and details which tell an incredible alternative history; one that has been firmly rejected by mainstream scholars.

Is This Man-Made Underground Complex ONE MILLION Years Old?
One of the many ancient stone structures in Antalya, Turkey. (Courtesy of Dr. Alexander Koltypin).

Dr. Koltypin argues that mainstream archeologists who work in the region are used to dating sites by looking at the settlement of rock, debris and the strata of earth located on them or in their vicinity, however, some dates were applied when, in fact, the actual sites were much older prehistoric structures.

While traveling near the Hurvat Burgin ruins in Adullam Grove Nature Reserve, central Israel, Dr. Koltypin recalled a similar feeling when he climbed on the top of the rock city Cavusin in Turkey. Almost a Deja vu feeling, Dr. Koltypin said:

“I was personally convinced once again (in the first time the same feeling came to me after I climbed to the top of the rock city Cavusin in Turkey) that all these rectangular indentations, man-made underground structures and scattered debris of megaliths were one underground-terrestrial megalithic complex which was opened by erosion to a depth of several hundred meters” 

In his work (source), Dr. Koltypin argues that not all parts of the giant complex are located underground. There are some parts that have come above ground due to geological shifts that have occurred throughout the history of our planet where Dr. Koltypin includes the incredibly rocky towns of Cappadocia in modern-day Turkey.

“On the basis of this, we can conclude that the underground cities of Cappadocia (including Tatlarin rock city) intended for the accommodation of the ordinary population and the rock city of Cavusin (or its part) was the residence of the kings of the underground. Though almost nothing is known about subterranean, nevertheless we can assume that the people who built the underground cities (if they even were men) were sun-worshipers professed the religion of sun gods (harmony and life by the Divine principles – nature laws). After many thousand or millions of years, this religion had become a basis of the Christian religion.” — Dr. Alexander Koltypin 

Dr. Koltypin continues explaining that certain sites in central and Northern Israel and central Turkey were exposed after cutting into the ground some one hundred meters.

“According to my estimates, such depth of erosion … could hardly be formed in less time than 500,000 to 1 million years,” he wrote on his website.

Dr. Koltypin suggests that certain parts of the complex surfaced as a result of mountain formation processes.

According to his estimates, there is evidence to support that the composition of building material found on a site in Antalya Turkey, referred to by Dr. Koltypin as “Jernokleev site,” are up to One Million years old even though mainstream scholars refuse to accept that age proposing instead that the site dates back to the Middle Ages.

Dr. Koltypin further adds that as a result of Earth’s crust moving throughout the centuries, parts of the underground complex were plunged into the sea.

“Practically in all the studied underground constructions of Israel and in the majority of underground constructions of Turkey, sediments of lithified (hard) and calcareous clay deposits are widely developed on their floor,” Dr. Koltypin writes on his website. 

The ancient Cavusin village is located in the Cappadocia region of Turkey.

Returning to the subject, Dr. Koltypin suggests that the similarity seen in numerous megalithic ruins is evidence of a profound connection present in ancient sites which were connected as one giant prehistoric complex.

According to Dr. Koltypin, numerous megalithic blocks weighing tens of tons could have been directly attached to underground complexes in the distant past.

“This circumstance gave me a reason to call the underground structures and geographically related ruins of cyclopean walls and buildings as a single underground-terrestrial megalithic complex,” writes Dr. Koltypin in his website.

He further adds that the megalithic construction which is seen in all corners of the world, seem to surpass, by far, the technological capabilities of ancient civilizations who, according to mainstream scholars, built them.

Making reference to the technological capabilities of the ancients, Dr. Koltypin states the stones fit together perfectly in some parts without cement and the ceilings, columns, arches, gates and other elements seem beyond the work of men with chisels. Adding to the mystery of these incredible sites, Dr. Koltypin notes that structures built on top of, or near sites by the Romans or other civilizations are completely primitive.

Mystery Tracks Left Behind Advanced Technology Millions Of Years Ago

Many researchers believe that there are several pieces of evidence pointing towards the existence of highly advanced ancient civilizations that existed on Earth millions of years ago.

Dr. Alexander Koltypin believes that the mysterious markings that extend along the Phrygian Valley, in central Turkey, were made by an intelligent race between 12 and 14 million years ago.

“We can assume that ancient vehicles with “wheels” were driven into the soft ground, perhaps a wet surface,” said the geologist. “Because of the great weight of these vehicles, they left behind very deep grooves which eventually petrified and turned into evidence.”

Geologists are familiar with such phenomena as they have found petrified footprints of dinosaurs that were preserved in the same way.

Together with three colleagues, Dr. Koltypin, director of the Natural Science Scientific Research Centre at Moscow’s International Independent Ecological-Political University, traveled to the site in Anatolia, Turkey where these markings can be found. Upon returning from his trip, he described the observed as ‘petrified tracking ruts in rocky tuffaceous [made from compacted volcanic ash] deposits’.

Ancient Roman gymnasium discovered in southwest Turkey

Ancient Roman gymnasium discovered in southwest Turkey

An ancient Roman gymnasium was discovered in Turkey’s southwestern Konya province after a landowner submitted an application to receive a building permit on his land which had been declared a protected site.

The land owner identified as Adem Kalender reportedly applied to the museum directorate in Sarayönü district, home to the ancient Roman city of Laodicea, for a building permit.

Upon arrival at the site, museum officials discovered ancient mosaics and immediately launched further works after closing the site and placing it under protection.

Ancient Roman gymnasium discovered in southwest Turkey
Aerial view of the ancient gymnasium discovered in Turkey’s southwestern Konya province.

“Excavations have revealed that there had been an ancient gymnasium here,” the village headman of Ladik neighbourhood Mustafa Arabacı told Ihlas News Agency.

Excavation work on the site is expected to be completed by spring, Arabacı said, adding that the site will be open to the public for visit.

Laodicea is currently on the tentative list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey.​

In March, the restoration – currently being conducted in the ancient city- was awarded the European Union Cultural Heritage Jury’s special award.

Regarded as one of the most important ancient cities in Anatolia, Laodicea is home to one of the Seven churches of Asia mentioned in the Book of Revelation.

Remains Of A 2,200-Year-Old Roman Fountain Discovered In Assos, Turkey

Remains Of A 2,200-Year-Old Roman Fountain Discovered In Assos, Turkey

Archaeologists have been continuously involved in excavations in the ancient city of Assos for 42 years. Assos ancient site has much to offer. A recent discovery at the ancient site of Assos, a 2,200-year-old Roman fountain,  informed the head of archaeological digs on Monday.

Ruins of the Temple of Athena, Assos, Turkey.

Located within the borders of the village of Behramkale in the Ayvacik district of Çanakkale province, the ancient city of Assos sheds light on its long historical past. Long-lasting excavations have already revealed a large number of Roman and Byzantine artefacts.

“Since the working conditions in the field were a bit intense in the winter, we continued to document the archaeological materials we previously found during that period. In addition, we prepared for the restoration of the city walls,” the head of excavations Professor Nurettin Arslan from the Faculty of Science and Letters at Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University’s Archaeology Department, said, as cited by Daily Sabah.

“With the arrival of summer, our active work on the land has started. We are excavating different areas in the ancient city.”

Remains Of A 2,200-Year-Old Roman Fountain Discovered In Assos, Turkey
Archaeologists found the remains of a 2,200-year-old Roman fountain in Assos, northwestern Turkey, on Aug. 15, 2022.

These excavations are extremely valuable and drew the attention of scientists and academics from some universities in Germany and a team of 30 people that took part in the latest excavations, Arslan informed.

This season, the team is focused on home to a gymnasium dating back to the Hellenistic period. He stated that they are focusing on the cisterns built as an add-on during the Roman period in the well-protected gymnasium, which was the high school of the Hellenistic era.

Assos is located on a high hill, in an area devoid of natural water resources. For this reason, there are underground water tanks and cisterns made by carving or cutting rocks in both official buildings and homes in the ancient city.

The fountain structure, Arslan informed, has its location in front of the Roman-era cisterns of the gymnasium.

The ancient Theatre of Assos overlooking the Aegean Sea, with the nearby island of Lesbos on the horizon, at right.

“According to our initial findings, we learned that it was a magnificent fountain structure. We know of many cisterns in Assos, but this is the first time we’ve come across a monumental fountain structure, ” the researcher said, adding that in terms of urban architecture, the fountain, is no doubt, an important structure, however, it had been seriously damaged during the Byzantine period.”

The team will do their best to re-erect the existing fragments of the 2,200-year-old Roman fountain.

Once the excavation is complete, one day in the near future, visitors will get the opportunity to see the ancient Roman work and feel the atmosphere around it.

Assos (also known as Behramkale), was once one of the most important port cities of its era and dates back to the period of Roman rule in the region. The ruins of Assos include an ancient theatre, agora, necropolis and the city’s protective walls. The theatre was discovered on the south slope of the ancient city across Midilli (Lesbos) and is thought to have been destroyed during an earthquake. From its construction technique and plan, it is understood that the theatre – with the capacity to hold 2,500 people – also dates back to the Roman era.

The agora is a central public space in which people would meet and gather while stoas are closed areas that protect people from the sun and rain. Also, there is a gymnasium and bouleuterion (assembly building) around the agora.

Among other archaeological finds within the area of the necropolis, the team found the oldest remains were found in jars as ashes. There were some items found placed beside the bodies as presents.

Then sarcophaguses were used as graves. The most interesting gift to the dead inside the sarcophaguses was a sculpture of a women’s orchestra.

Assos – where Turkish archaeologists started excavations in 1981 – was added to UNESCO’s Tentative World Heritage List on April 15, 2017.

7,800-year-old female figurine discovered in Ulucak Höyük in western Turkey

7,800-year-old female figurine discovered in Ulucak Höyük in western Turkey

7,800-year-old female figurine discovered in Ulucak Höyük in western Turkey
The 7,800-year-old female figurine found in Ulucak Mound, Izmir, Türkiye.

A clay statuette of a female figure dating back 7,800 years were unearthed during the Ulucak Mound excavation in the Kemalpaşa district of the western province of Izmir.

Professor Özlem Çevik from the Department of Protohistory and Pre-Asian Archeology at Trakya University’s Faculty of Letters, who is leading the excavations in Ulucak, told Anadolu Agency (AA) that the mound is the site of the first farmer village settlement of Izmir.

“It is among the oldest settlements in Western Anatolia, and we have unearthed findings dating back 8,850 years in the mound,” Çevik said.

Archaeologists work in Ulucak Mound, Izmir, Türkiye, Aug. 8, 2022. (AA)

Noting that the team discovered that the Ulucak Mound had been inhabited continuously for 45 generations with villages established one on top of the other, Çevik added: “During the excavations of a house this year, we found a whole female figurine made of clay.

We have previously found similar statuettes but they were usually broken.

The latest figurine is important for us as it is the third figurine found in an intact form here.”

According to Çevik, these kinds of statuettes were previously thought to depict gods and goddesses, however, they were also found in the dumpsite of the ancient mound which leads researchers to believe that they were not sacred pieces.

Archaeologists think that the figurines may be related to important events like births, deaths or the harvest and may be used to increase abundance and fertility or for witchcraft.

7,800-year-old female figurine discovered in Ulucak Höyük in western Turkey
The 7,800-year-old female figurine found in Ulucak Mound, Izmir, Türkiye.

The Ulucak Mound, located 25 kilometers (15 miles) east of Izmir, features cultural artifacts from the early Neolithic period to the late Roman-early Byzantine era.

The site was discovered by British archaeologist David French in the 1960s but it remained unexplored until excavations began in the middle of 1990s.

The very first excavation period between 1995 and 2008 was headed by archaeologist Altan Çilingiroğlu and the Izmir Archaeological Museum.

Since 2009, Çevik of Trakya University has been directing the studies at the archaeological site.

The excavations in Ulucak have already produced valuable insights into the emergence and development of prehistoric cultures in western Türkiye.

An 8,500-year-old human skeleton and musical instrument were found in the garden of the apartment

An 8,500-year-old human skeleton and musical instrument were found in the garden of the apartment

An approximately 8,500-year-old human skeleton and a three-hole musical instrument were found during an excavation in the garden of an apartment in the Bahçelievler District of Bilecik.

This place, which is likely to be one of the first points of human settlements in Western Anatolia, was discovered for the first time when a resident of Bilecik reported some ceramic pieces found here to the Archeology Museum.

An 8,500-year-old human skeleton and musical instrument were found in the garden of the apartment

As a result of two years of work, 11 human skeletons estimated to be 8,500 years old and musical instruments with three holes from the same period were found in the garden of the apartment.

Archaeologists also found grains such as lentils, barley and vetch, as well as varieties of wheat used to make bread and pasta.

Stating that this year’s most important find is a three-hole wind instrument, Fidan added: “We also found religious objects such as ornamented boxes made of terracotta, human-shaped amulets and animal figures during the excavations. In addition, a skull we found in the courtyard gives us information about the religious life of that period.”

8,500 years old 3-hole musical instrument found in Bilecik

Fidan said, “We think that this musical instrument, which has 3 holes, is a part of a musical instrument that makes sounds and changes sound notes. He also stated that the tool can be used thanks to an appliqué mouthpiece attached to this piece.

The head of the excavation, Assoc. ErkanFidan said, “The human skeletons found in the excavation area belong to the oldest adolescent people in the Neolithic Age in Western Anatolia.

“Fidan stated that “the human communities that came here 9 thousand years ago and stayed here for about a thousand years, unearthed the first villages.” In addition, Fidan said that people living in the region who know how to do agriculture also domesticated animals.

8,500 years old 3-hole musical instrument found in Bilecik

Fidan also noted that they found other human skeletons in the excavation area and that these skeletons were examined in detail at the Hacettepe University Anthropology Department Laboratory.

He also stated that they aim to learn a lot about these people in the near future, about their age, gender, illness and the food they eat.

The finds found in the excavation will be exhibited in the Bilecik Archeology Museum after the restoration and research works are completed.

Remains of Mongol Summer Palace Investigated in Turkey

Remains of Mongol Summer Palace Investigated in Turkey

Archaeologists in Turkey have discovered the remains of an ancient palace that may have belonged to Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan. The site in eastern Turkey’s Van province, in the Çaldıran district, is currently being excavated.

Remains of Mongol Summer Palace Investigated in Turkey
Scientists are seen at the archaeological excavation site of what may be Hulagu Khan’s palace in Van, Turkiye. Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, is believed to have built a summer palace in the 1260s.

Hulagu Khan, a Mongol warlord who lived from about 1217 to 1265, achieved military renown for leading several expeditions, including the sack of Baghdad in 1258.

After the Mongol Empire splintered in 1259, Hulagu Khan became the ruler of the Mongol Ilkhanid State in the Middle East, which at its height included territory in what is now Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Dagestan, and Tajikistan.

Historical sources state that during the 1260s, Hulagu Khan built a summer palace in Çaldıran.

An aerial view of the archaeological excavation site of what may be Hulagu Khan’s palace in Van, Turkiye. Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, is believed to have built a summer palace in the 1260s.

The newly discovered ruins have yet to be definitively identified as the lost residence, but the excavation team, led by Ersel Çağlıtütuncigil of the Izmir Katip Çelebi University Turkish-Islamic Archeology Department, is optimistic about the site, where scholars have unearthed shards of glazed ceramics and pottery, porcelain, bricks, and roof tiles.

The researchers, who are working under Turkey’s General Directorate of Cultural Heritage and Museums of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, believe this could be the first known architectural remains of the Ilkhanid State.

“No Ilkhanid work has been encountered until now. In this sense, this study was a first. It excited us and our friends from Mongolia,” Çağlıtütuncigil told Turkish publication the Daily Sabah.

Scientists are seen at the archaeological excavation site of what may be Hulagu Khan’s palace in Van, Turkiye. Hulagu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, is believed to have built a summer palace in the 1260s.

Important clues pointing to Hulagu Khan’s ownership are a number of “‘s’-like symbols on the roof-ending tiles” known as the “svastika pattern or tamga,” Munkhtulga Rinchinkhorol, a Mongolian Academy of Sciences archaeologist working on the dig, told Live Science.

“[That is] one of the power symbols of the Mongol Khans.”

The site, which appears to have been heavily looted, also contains the remains of a caravanserai, one of the travellers’ inns that would have dotted the Silk Road trade route.

Through further excavations, researchers hope to uncover the church that historical sources say Hulagu Khan built for his wife.

The ancient Vespasianus Titus Tunnel of Turkey

The ancient Vespasianus Titus Tunnel of Turkey

The ancient Vespasianus Titus Tunnel of Turkey
The ancient Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.

In the Samandağ district of southern Turkey’s Hatay province, the Vespasianus Titus Tunnel, or simply the Titus Tunnel, is a magnificent ancient structure constructed by 1,000 slaves to prevent floodwaters in the area, has been garnering particular attention from tourists.

The Titus Tunnel was a mega project 2,000 years ago carved into the mountain, and it still stands as an unbelievable engineering marvel.

The tunnel, which was built to prevent floodwaters that carried sand and gravel down the mountains from filling the city’s harbour and threatening it, was first conceived by the Roman Emperor Vespasian, who started its construction in A.D. 69. Its construction continued during the reign of his successor and son Emperor Titus and in the times of his other successors.

The ancient Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.

It was finally completed during the era of Antoninus Pius in the second century. It was built by digging the rocks using human resources only.

The tunnel is part of a water diversion system consisting of a dam, a short approach channel, the first tunnel section, a short intermediary channel, the second tunnel section and a long discharge channel.

It hosts an inscription elegantly carved into the rock at the first tunnel entrance that reads the names of Vespasianus and Titus, while there is another one at the discharge tunnel for Antonious.

Ancient structures near the Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.

It stands today as a must-see site for anyone that visits Hatay as it takes visitors on a wonderful journey through time. The tunnel is 1,380 meters (4,527 feet) long with a height of 7 meters and a width of 6 meters, attracting admiration from local visitors and abroad with its architecture in the middle of nature.

The tunnel is part of a water diversion system consisting of a dam, a short approach channel, the first tunnel section, a short intermediary channel, the second tunnel section and a long discharge channel.

It is located at the foot of the Nur Mountains, near the modern village of Çevlik, 7 kilometres (4.3 miles), northwest of central Samandağ (the medieval port of Saint Symeon) and 35 kilometres southwest of Antakya.

The ancient Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.
Beşikli Cave where 12 rock tombs are located near the ancient Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.

Beşikli Cave is also right next to the tunnel, standing only 100 meters away, boasting a particularly flashy architectural structure and decoration. In the cave, there are tombs from the ancient Roman period, believed to belong to a nobleman and his family.

Those who come to visit the tunnel also get the chance to see the tomb chambers here.

Ayşe Ersoy, director of the Hatay Archaeology Museum, said that it was evident from these sites as well that Hatay occupied a significantly important historical and cultural value.

Ersoy stated that the city had hosted several civilizations throughout its history and that now it was receiving great interest from both domestic and foreign visitors. She noted that the Titus Tunnel was one of the most remarkable places in the city.

She also said that the number of visitors to the tunnel was increasing day by day.

Beşikli Cave where 12 rock tombs are located near the ancient Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.
The path between high stone walls to the ancient Roman Titus Tunnel, in the Samandağ district of Hatay, Turkey.

“The 1,380-meter-long Titus Tunnel, an important Roman ruin of our city, takes its visitors on a journey in time,” Ersoy said and added, “More than 28,000 local and foreign visitors have been to Titus Tunnel over the last eight months in Samandağ.”

Cafer Tayyar Demirci, who came from Gaziantep, said, “Titus Tunnel is a place of a natural wonder; everyone should definitely stop by here.”

Celal Karadavut, who came from Mersin to visit the tunnel with his family, said that Hatay is an important city that has left its mark on history.

Karadavut stated that he was pleased to visit the city that has hosted many civilizations. “Hatay is a city that has a different place in Turkey both in terms of history, nature and gastronomy,” he said.

Şükran Naz Karadavut also noted that she liked the tunnel very much and that everyone should see it.

7.5 Million Annual Elephant Skulls Fossil Were Found in Turkey “Choerolophodon Pentelic”

7.5 Million Annual Elephant Skulls Fossil Were Found in Turkey “Choerolophodon Pentelic”

A complete skull fossil from 7.5 million years ago was discovered on the bank of the Yamula Dam in the central Kayseri Province of Turkey. This is a major discovery. The skull belongs to Choerolophodon Pentelic, known as the ancestor of elephants.

7.5 Million Annual Elephant Skulls Fossil Were Found in Turkey “Choerolophodon Pentelic”

The study of the fossils found last year was carried out by one of the few experts on Proboscidea – the taxonomic order of African mammals – in the world, Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality said in a statement.

The statement stated that Juha Saarinen, a professor in the Department of Earth Sciences and Geography at the University of Helsinki, came to Kayseri and completed the final examination of the skull.

Okşan Başoğlu, head of the excavation team which continues working at the discovery site, said the Finnish scientist Saarinen “worked on the big and complete skull for two full days.”

“This will be published in a very respected journal abroad because it is a very significant fossil,” she quoted Saarinen as saying.

Juha Saarinen works on the elephant skull, Kayseri, central Turkey, (AA Photo)

Başoğlu said it would be a benchmark for them and soon the names of Kayseri and Yamula would take their place in the world’s literature on the subject.

“For this reason, it is a very essential development for us. Kayseri, in one sense, will be a centre of palaeontology,” she said, referring to the study of the history of life on Earth based on fossils.

She said studies in the laboratory are continuously ongoing.

Saarinen, who has worked in many areas from Europe to the Middle East and China to the US, stated that the complete skull fossil belonging to Choerolophodon Pentelic is the only specimen in the world and it is larger in mass than any fossil elephant found in other contemporary fossils. localities of the world.

When it comes to the fully preserved and unique skull specimens and other fossils found in the province, he said that Kayseri will become a reference point for international palaeontology.

In previous studies in the region, samples of giraffes, 4-5 species known as the ancestors of elephants, rhinoceros, triple hoofed horses, and wasp were found.