Category Archives: INDIA

Experts: 1.7 Million-Year-Old Man-Made Bridge Shatters Mainstream History

Experts: 1.7 Million-Year-Old Man-Made Bridge Shatters Mainstream History

A 1.7 million-year-old ‘bridge’ is the ultimate evidence that humans have been on Earth much longer than thought claims experts.

“The ratio of 10:1 (length: width) fits the actual measurements of the bridge observed today.”

The former director of the Geological Survey of India believes he has found the ultimate evidence of a 1.7 million-year-old man-made bridge which indicates mankind existed on Earth millions of years ago and had the ability to erect ‘sophisticated’ structures long before mainstream experts suggest. This, however, goes against everything we’ve been told since according to mainstream scientists, humans have been on Earth for roughly 200,000 years, but the alleged bridge throws everything that scientists believed true into questions. The structure — which is visible from space — occupies a relatively large area stretching from India to Sri Lanka. Curiously, ancient Hindu legends suggest that King Rama, a Hindu deity built a bridge of similar proportions more than a million years ago.

Experts: 1.7 Million-Year-Old Man-Made Bridge Shatters Mainstream History

According to the Hindu tradition, this “strip of land” is a bridge built by the Hindu god Rama, as told in the Hindu epic Ramayana. Rama is one of the most famous manifestations of the Supreme God and is recognized as the image, the spirit, and consciousness of Hinduism, one of the oldest religions in the world. In fact, since ancient times it is known as the “Bridge of Rama” or “Rama Setu”.

The Indian epic Ramayana tells the story of the land bridge and how it was built to serve Hindu god Rama, in order to help him cross the water to reach the large island and rescue his beloved one from the clutches of the demon king Ravanna. It is a story of love, brave deeds and incredible constructions as it seems. Some refer to the alleged bridge as the Rama Setu, while others call it Adams Bridge and many believe it is one of the best pieces of evidence that humans have existed on Earth much longer than we’re told.

Ok, that’s cool but… who’s the supposed scientist who said it’s real?

We are talking about Dr. S. Badrinarayanan, former director of the Geological Survey of India and former coordinator of the survey division of the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).

He studied core samples of the bridge and is apparently convinced that we’re not looking at a natural formation — as other scientists suggest — but at a man-made structure, and one that was ‘erected’ more than a million years ago. According to reports, Dr. Badrinarayanan performed a survey of this structure and concluded that it was man-made. Dr. Badrinarayanan and his team drilled 10 bore holes along the alignment of Adam’s Bridge.

What he discovered was startling. About 6 meters below the surface he found a consistent layer of calcareous sand stone, corals and boulder like materials. His team was surprised when they discovered a layer of loose sand, some 4-5 meters further down and then hard rock formations below that. A team of divers went down to physically examine the bridge. The boulders that they observed were not composed of a typical marine formation. They were identified as having come from either side of the causeway.

Dr. Badrinarayanan also indicates that there is evidence of ancient quarrying in these areas. His team concluded that materials from either shore were placed upon the sandy bottom of the water to form the causeway.

In a special discussion board on Rediff, Dr. Badrinarayanan said:

“It is not a natural formation; the top portion of it appears to be a man-made structure.”

“To understand what I am saying from the geological point of view, you have to get to know several things.”

“What is known as Adam’s Bridge is originally a natural grade divide separating the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean to the south. So, the geological aspects are different on either side.”

Dr. Badrinarayanan added:

“We found marine sands on top and below that was a mixed assemblage of corals, calcareous sand stones, and boulder-like materials.

“Surprisingly below that up to 4–5 meters [13–16 feet], again we found loose sand and after that, hard formations were there.”

He added that “below the corals and boulders, we are getting loose sand, which means it is not natural.”

However, the “Ramayana,” the bridge is said to have been built upon a wooden foundation (which was placed atop a preexisting natural elevation) that was then covered with large and small stones.

But obviously, there are many who disagree with Dr. Badrinarayanan.

One of them is Suvrat Kher, a geologist who specializes in marine formations, who firmly believes we are looking at nothing more than a natural formation.

Writing about the alleged bridge, Dr. Kher said:

“During the Pleistocene ‘ice-age’ period, glacial buildup and melting forced fluctuations in sea-level by tens of meters, setting up the conditions for several episodes of coral reef and sand shoal formation.

“During periods of large sea-level drops in the Pleistocene, there would have been a land connection between India and Sri Lanka. ”

“But at the end of the last Wisconsin glaciation, the sea-level began to rise world-wide.”

What Powered The Vimanas? India’s 6,000-Year-Old Flying Machines

What Powered The Vimanas? India’s 6,000-Year-Old Flying Machines

According to Ancient Indian history – one of the most extensive on the planet – their ancient sacred texts called the ‘Vedas’ speak of incredible flying ships that visited our planet over 6000 years ago. Throughout history, many common myths and legends mention incredible flying machines and how ancient people traveled great distances through the air: the flying carpets of ancient Arabia, Ezekiel’s wheel, Solomons’ ability to travel from one place to another and the magical chariots or ‘vimana’ mentioned in ancient Indian and Chinese texts.

What Powered The Vimanas? India’s 6,000-Year-Old Flying Machines

According to Ancient Indian history –one of the most extensive on the planet– their ancient sacred texts called the ‘Vedas’ speak of amazing flying ships that visited our planet over 6000 years ago. While there are many who oppose the existence of the Vimana, millions of people around the world are concerned that thousands of years ago, ancient mankind was visited by incredible flying machines, piloted by the ‘gods’.

With the help of the Vimana, ancient astronauts visited different places on our planet with ease, spreading knowledge and wealth among ancient, primitive civilizations. Reference to the ancient Vimana can be found in the Mahabharata, which is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India:

“At Rama`s behest, the magnificent chariot rose up to a mountain of cloud with a tremendous din. Another passage reads: Bhima flew with his Vimana on an enormous ray which was as brilliant as the sun and made a noise like the thunder of a storm. In the ancient Vymanka-Shastra (the science of aeronautics), there is a description of a Vimana: “An apparatus which can go by its own force, from one place to place or globe to the globe”.

Dr. Raghavan points out, “The text’s revelations become even more astounding. Thirty-one parts of which the machine consists are described, including a photographing mirror underneath.

“The text also enumerates 16 kinds of metal that are needed to construct the flying vehicle: `Metals suitable, lighare 16 kinds`. But only three of them are known to us today. The rest remain untranslatable.”

Another authority who agrees with Dr. Raghavan`s interpretations is Dr. A.V. Krishna Murty, professor of aeronautics at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.

“It is true,” Dr. Krishna Murty says, “that the ancient Indian Vedas and other text refer to aeronautics, spaceships, flying machines, ancient astronauts. A study of the Sanskrit texts has convinced me that ancient India did know the secret of building flying machines and that those machines were patterned after spaceships coming from other planets.”

However, What Fueled this Ancient Vimana?

The Vaimānika Śāstra, an early 20th-century Sanskrit text on aerospace technology, makes a claim that the vimānas mentioned in ancient Sanskrit epics were advanced aerodynamic flying vehicles, similar to a rocket capable of interplanetary flight as backed up by the ancient alien theory. Revealed in 1952 by G. R. Josye, the texts contain 3000 shlokas in 8 chapters which Shastry claimed were psychically delivered to him by the ancient Hindu sage Bharadvaja. The propulsion of the Vimanas According to Kanjilal (1985) is by a “Mercury Vortex Engines”, a concept similar to electric propulsion. However, many people argue that a far greater, more accessible and ‘free’ power source was available to the ancient Vimana craft. It is noteworthy to mention that a couple of years ago, Chinese researchers discovered ancient Sanskrit documents in Lhasa, Tibet, dating back thousands of years. The ancient texts were sent to the University of Chandigarh for translation. The results were shocking. According to Dr. Ruth Reyna the translated texts, allegedly are ‘blueprints’ for the construction of interstellar spaceships.

According to the translated documents, the propulsion system designed for the spaceships was based on antigravitational technology, and based on a system analogous to that of “laghima,” the unknown power of the ego that exists in man’s physiological makeup, “a centrifugal force strong enough to counteract all gravitational pull.”

Interestingly, according to Hindu Yogis, the mysterious “laghima” force is what enables people to levitate.

Dr. Reyna explained that “on board, these machines which were called ‘Astras,’ the builders of the crafts could have sent a detachment of men to any planet. The manuscripts, however, do not mention how interplanetary communication was achieved, but they do mention a trip from the Earth to the Moon, though it is unclear whether the trip was just planned or actually carried out.”

However, one of the great Indian epics, the Ramayana, does have a highly detailed story in it of a trip to the moon in a Vimana (or “Astra”), and in fact details a battle on the moon with an “Asvin” (or Atlantean” airship.

Indian scientists were extremely reserved about the value of these documents but became less so when the Chinese announced that certain parts of the information were being studied for inclusion in their space program.

But can we actually ‘reverse engineer’ ANCIENT technology? Well… depends on what you think is possible. Interestingly in the Sanskrit Samarangana Sutradhara, it is written:

“Strong and durable must the body of the Vimana be made, like a great flying bird of light material. Inside one must put the mercury engine with its iron heating apparatus underneath. By means of the power latent in the mercury which sets the driving whirlwind in motion, a man sitting inside may travel a great distance in the sky. The movements of the Vimana are such that it can vertically ascend, vertically descend, and move slanting forwards and backwards. With the help of the machines, human beings can fly in the air, and heavenly beings can come down to earth.”

Interestingly, in the Law of the Babylonians, the Hakatha unambiguously states:

“The privilege of operating a flying machine is great. The knowledge of flight is among the most ancient of our inheritances. A gift from ’those from upon high’. We received it from them as a means of saving many lives.”

“The Pushpaka Vimana was a gigantic ‘plane’ the size of a large city entirely capable of holding unlimited numbers of people…”

“…Three flying cities were made for and were used by the Demons… One was in a stationary orbit in the sky, another moving in the sky and one was permanently stationed on the ground. These were docked like modern spaceships in the sky… and at a fixed latitude/longitude.

“Siva’s arrow obviously referred to a blazing missile fired from a satellite specially built for the purpose…Vestiges of onetime prosperous civilization destroyed in battles flicker through these legends…” – Prof. D.K. Kanjilal’s observations of the Matsyapurana

Harnessing Earth’s Natural Energy

But is it possible that the ancient Vimana’s were built so they could access the planet’s natural energy? What if thousands of years ago, ancient flying machines used Earth’s natural energy to charge and reload? Is it possible that ancient monuments like pyramids were, in fact, giant energy transmitters that fueled the ancient Vimana?

Interestingly Stone like metal can be charged and is able to carry out electrical charges. What if ancient sites on Earth were specifically placed on so-called magnetic vortexes or electrical ‘Ley Lines’?

What if there is a far greater meaning to the countless number of ancient Indian Pyramids, monoliths, megalithic statues, steles, obelisks and totems, and what if all of these structures, not only from ancient India but different civilizations around the world, had a special scientific purpose: to transmit vast amounts of energy. Many researchers argue that intricate ancient stonework attributed to the Incas, Egyptians, East Indians, Maya and other ancient civilizations has a specific purpose, and was not only aesthetic in nature. It is noteworthy to mention that many consider the Great Pyramid of Giza as one of the best examples of ancient energy machines. It was a Tesla-like power plant created thousands of years ago. It was a huge ancient structure that was capable of using the Earth’s natural properties in order to create or produce a great amount of energy. This energy is believed to have been used by the ancient Egyptians and other cultures such as the ancient Maya and other cultures around the globe for millennia. This theory, however, has been firmly rejected by mainstream researchers. If we approach the history of ancient civilizations from another perspective, we will encounter that ancient civilizations around the globe were, in fact, extremely sophisticated and used advanced technologies thousands of years before mainstream science ‘reinvented them’.

These advanced technologies were present in ancient Egypt, Ancient Sumer, and in North, Central and South America. Electricity, electrochemistry, electromagnetic technology, metallurgy, advanced engineering, including hydrogeology, chemistry, physics and advanced forms of mathematics and astronomy were all used thousands of years ago to great extents.

India knew to use iron 4,000 years ago, archaeological findings show

India knew to use iron 4,000 years ago, archaeological findings show

Carbon dating of cultural deposits found during archaeological excavations in Mayiladumparai in Krishnagiri district has found they belong to 2172 BCE, establishing that the Tamils were aware of the use of iron 4,200 years ago.

Representative image.
India knew to use iron 4,000 years ago, archaeological findings show
Representational image of an archaeological dig

Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M K Stalin told the Assembly that the first phase of excavation in 2020-2021 has yielded two important dates – 1615 BCE and 2172 BCE, which provide a new understanding of the nature of cultural deposits.

The AMS dating by Beta Analytical Lab in Florida, US has established three important features – iron appeared in Tamil Nadu as early as 220 BCE, the late Neolithic phase was identified before 2200 BCE as there is a cultural deposit of 25 cm below the dated level, and black-red-redware was in use the late Neolithic phase itself, in contrast to the wider belief that they were introduced in the Iron Age.

Archaeological excavations in Mayiladumparai have found that the date of iron artefacts unearthed ‘ranges from 2172 BCE to 1615 BCE’.

The recent archaeological excavations in Tamil Nadu have thrown up surprises – carbon dating of artefacts in Keeladi, a Sangam Era site near Madurai, and paddy husks found in a burial urn in Sivakalai in Thoothukudi district established their age to 2,600 and 3,200 years old.

“Through the findings, it has been established that Tamils who lived 4200 years ago were aware of iron. Dense forests were converted into fertile lands only after humankind began realising the use of iron. This finding has answered questions relating to the start of agricultural activity in Tamil Nadu,” Stalin said.

He also announced that the Tamil Nadu State Department of Archaeology (TNSDA) will begin work on a comparative study of graffiti found in Keeladi and the signs of the Indus Valley Civilisation.

AMS dating of the Iron Age has so far been done in many places, including in the Gangetic plains and Karnataka, Stalin said, adding that the period that has thrown up in Mayiladumparai is the earliest so far.

“I have been saying that the goal of this government is to establish through scientific methods that the history of India should be rewritten from the Tamil land. The latest findings reinforce our thoughts,” Stalin added.

The Chief Minister also announced that the TNSDA will continue its efforts to trace the journey of ancient Tamils. As part of the efforts, excavations in Pattanam (Kerala), Thalakadu (Karnataka), Vengi (Andhra Pradesh), and Palur (Odisha) will begin this year, Stalin added.

Dr R Sivananthan, Commissioner, TNSDA, told DH that Mayiladumparai can be termed as the earliest Iron Age site in South India as Brahmagiri in Karnataka was the earliest so far with AMS dates going back to 2040 BCE.

“The date we have got for Mayiladumparai is 2172 BCE. It is just about a century and we need more evidence. The earliest evidence of the Iron Age in Tamil Nadu so far was 1500 BCE and Mayiladumparai pushes it back by another six to seven centuries. Since this is just the 1st phase in Mayiladumparai, we should wait for more cultural deposits,” he told DH.

An archaeological expert put the findings in perspective saying that the AMS dating has brought Tamil Nadu “within the Indian framework” as the cultural deposits in Mayiladumparai are 4,200 years old.

“The earliest Iron Age site in Tamil Nadu so far was 1500 BCE old while all other such sites in the country were beyond 2000 BCE. There were a lot of questions on why there was no scientific evidence on the use of iron despite it being mentioned in literature and having rich iron ore in the Salem region. With this, we now have findings,” the expert said.

The report released by the government also spoke about references in Sangam literature on iron, the use of iron, and the methods of making iron weapons. Literature refers to iron as ‘blacksmiths’ and ‘blacksmiths with strong hands’.

“It can be said that the iron industry was very advanced from the fact that many fine words about the iron industry find a place in Tamil literature. One could realise that the iron technology was in an advanced stage as one could find many fine technical terms in Tamil literature,” he said.

5000-Year-Old Jewellery Making Factory Discovered In Millennia-Old Harappan City In Haryana’s Rakhigarhi

5000-Year-Old Jewellery Making Factory Discovered In Millennia-Old Harappan City In Haryana’s Rakhigarhi

Rakhigarhi in Haryana is world-famous for some of the most well-known sites Harrapan civilisation, and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has been conducting new excavations for the last 32 years. Now, it seems ASI has made one of its biggest discoveries in the 7,000-year-old planned Harappan city with the excavation of a 5000-year-old factory which used to manufacture jewellery.

ASI digs up a millennia-old planned Harappan city at Rakhigarhi, Haryana

The excavation and study at Rakhigarhi have so far revealed that this place once not only housed a planned Harappan city with some of the best engineering marvels of the time but also engaged in trading and business practices.

The archaeologists found evidence of town planning, including streets, pucca walls and multi-storeyed houses. Evidence of modern engineering which is currently being used to build big cities– like straight streets, drains, and dustbins placed at corners of streets for garbage– were also found from the excavation site in Rakhigarhi. 

During the latest round of excavation in Rakhigarhi, which is scheduled to be completed by the end of May, skeletons of two women were found along with jewellery. Along with skeletons, utensils used by the deceased were also found. 

5000-Year-Old Jewellery Making Factory Discovered In Millennia-Old Harappan City In Haryana’s Rakhigarhi

Elaborating on the latest discoveries, Sanjay K Manjul, Joint Director General, ASI told news agency ANI that Rakhigarhi archaeological site has seven mounds and pieces of evidence of Harappan culture have been uncovered in all seven of them. “Similar excavations have happened before and this is the third phase,” he said.

Sharing his observations on the engineering marvels of the Harappan civilisation, the archaeologist said well-led planning could be observed here, with streets and walls along with it, house complexes, drainage systems, burnt brick structural support and varieties of pottery components with many paintings showing their improved baking technique.

“Copper and gold objects were also found, along with artefacts, beads, sealed scripts with motifs, and ceilings with Harappan script and elephant depictions. This shows their cultural diversity. Our motive is to develop this site iconically,” he added.

History of Rakhigarhi: In Points

  • Rakhigarhi is the largest archaeological site of the Harappan civilisation which comes under two modern villages Rakhi-Shahpur and Rakhigarhi-Khash. For the first time, this site was excavated in 1998-2001 by the ASI. After that from 2013 to 2016, Deccan College, Pune worked here.
  • Rakhigarhi has been classified as a major metropolitan centre of the Harappan culture. During an investigation conducted in 1969 by Professor Suraj Bhan, it was found that archaeological remains of Rakhigarhi and settlements are of the nature of the Harappan culture.
  • Later, during an investigation conducted by the ASI and Pune Deccan College, it came to the fore that this place has a cluster township spread across 500 hectares. It includes 11 mounds which have been named RGR- 1 TO 11.
  • The excavations carried out by the ASI under the directions of Amarendra Nath during the year 1997-98 to 1999-2000 revealed various occupational phases beginning from the pre-formative stage to the mature Harrapan period covering the time from 5th millennia BCE to 3rd millennia BCE based on the radiocarbon dates obtained from various layers.     

How ASI plans to develop Rakhigarhi In Future

According to a report by news agency IANS, there is a procedure going on for a memorandum of understanding between the ASI and Haryana government under which the ancient things of the Rakhigarhi will be displayed in a museum which is under the Haryana government.

The ASI will soon start excavation in September 2022 and after that will throw open these mounds, so that the tourists can get full information. Very soon Rakhigarhi will witness a beeline of tourists as the officials want that when the tourists see the remains they get the information about the antique and the truth about it.

As per the announcement made by the Central government in the Union Budget 2020-21, Rakhigarhi will be developed as one of the five best iconic places for which excavation started on February 24, 2022.

The government’s aim is to facilitate the tourists who come to Rakhigarhi besides exposing structural remains. Besides, its aim is also to understand the settlement of Harappa in Rakhigarhi and the interrelation of seven mounds.

Large Sandstone Jars Discovered in India

Large Sandstone Jars Discovered in India

Giant mysterious jars that may have been used for burial rituals have been unearthed across four new sites in Assam, India. The discovery comes from a major collaboration involving researchers at The Australian National University (ANU).   

The 65 newly discovered sandstone jars vary in shape and decoration, with some tall and cylindrical, and others partly or fully buried in the ground.   

Similar jars, some of which span up to three metres high and two metres wide, have previously been uncovered in Laos and Indonesia.   

Large Sandstone Jars Discovered in India

“We still don’t know who made the giant jars or where they lived. It’s all a bit of a mystery,” ANU PhD student Nicholas Skopal said.   

Another mystery is what the giant jars were used for. The researchers believe it is likely they were associated with mortuary practices.   

“There are stories from the Naga people, the current ethnic groups in north-east India, of finding the Assam jars filled with cremated remains, beads and other material artefacts,” Mr Skopal said.   

This theory aligns with findings from the other jar sites in countries including Laos, which are also tied to burial rituals.   

Initially, the aim of the new research was to survey the existing sites in Assam. However, as the researchers moved about the landscape they realised there was more to be uncovered.   

“At the start, the team just went in to survey three large sites that hadn’t been formally surveyed. From there grids were set up to explore the surrounding densely forested regions,” Mr Skopal said.  

“This is when we first started finding new jar sites.   

“The team only searched a very limited area so there are likely to be a lot more out there, we just don’t yet know where they are.”   

The surveying and reporting of these sites are of great importance in regard to heritage management in India.   

“It seems as though there aren’t any living ethnic groups in India associated with the jars, which means there is important to maintain the cultural heritage,” Mr Skopal said.   

“The longer we take to find them, the greater chance that they will be destroyed, as more crops are planted in these areas and the forests are cut down.”   

The researchers worked with local communities on the ground to uncover potential jar sites, often through areas of mountainous jungle that were difficult to navigate.  

“Once the sites have been recorded, it becomes easier for the government to work with the local communities to protect and maintain them so they are not being destroyed,” Mr Skopal said.  

The research was led by Tilok Thakuria, from North Eastern Hill University and Uttam Bathari, from Gauhati University.   

The study’s findings are published in the Journal of Asian Archaeology.  

Archaeologists Unearth Ancient Dagger Linked to Enigmatic Indian Civilization

Archaeologists Unearth Ancient Dagger Linked to Enigmatic Indian Civilization

Archaeologists working in the village of Konthagai in southern India have found a rusted iron dagger preserved in a burial urn alongside skeletal remains, the Times of India reports. The discovery is part of a major excavation effort in the state of Tamil Nadu that seeks to shine a light on the ancient Keeladi civilization.

Archaeologists Unearth Ancient Dagger Linked to Enigmatic Indian Civilization
This iron dagger’s well-preserved wooden handle may help researchers date artefacts found in Konthagai.

Though the dagger’s 16-inch steel blade was rusted and broken in half, part of its wooden handle remained intact. R. Sivanandam, director of the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, tells the Hindu that this type of weapon was used by warriors during the Sangam period, which spanned roughly the third century B.C.E. through the third century C.E.

The wood’s unusual preservation may allow researchers to precisely date the artefacts found at the site. Sivanandam says a lab in the United States will attempt to date the dagger handle.

Since the start of the digging season in February, archaeologists in Konthagai have discovered 25 burial urns. Some were filled with bones, weapons and other objects. Scientists at Madurai Kamaraj University in Tamil Nadu are conducting DNA tests on human remains.

As the Times notes, the researchers think that Konthagai was a burial site for the Keeladi civilization. Teams are also excavating ancient Keeladi sites in the villages of Agaram, Manulur and Keeladi—the place that gives the civilization its name.

Per the Tamil Nadu Department of Archaeology, carbon dating of artefacts dated some to as early as 580 B.C.E. The digs have yielded large numbers of cow, ox, buffalo and goat skeletons, suggesting agricultural activity by the ancient Keeladi people.

Archaeologists have also found structures with clay floors; brick walls; and post-holes, which may have held wooden poles used to support roofs. Artefacts recovered at the site show that members of the civilization played board games and inscribed letters on pottery using the Tamil-Brahmi script.

The Keeladi civilization may be linked to the famed Indus Valley, or Harappan, civilization.

Many discoveries made in the area date to around 500 B.C., when an agricultural surplus allowed people to build urban centres in what’s known as the subcontinent’s “second urbanization.” (The name reflects a contrast with the much earlier “first urbanization” of the Harappan, or Indus Valley, civilization, which began around 2500 B.C.E.) While scholars previously believed that the second urbanization happened mostly along the Central Ganges Plain in northern India, the new evidence suggests a similar phenomenon occurred in the south as well.

Sivanandam tells DT Next’s J. Praveen Paul Joseph that findings at the Keeladi sites show evidence of ancient industrial production sites. Archaeologists have found spinning and weaving tools, cloth dyeing operations, brick kilns, and ceramic workshops.

In 2019, M.C. Rajan of the Hindustan Times reported that discoveries at Keeladi suggest the community that lived there—also referred to as the Vaigai civilization after a nearby river—may have descended from the Harappan civilization. As it declined, its people may have travelled south to start new lives.

The findings also offer material evidence about the Sangam period, which is known mainly for its Tamil literature.

Based on the archaeological evidence, some researchers now say the Sangam period began earlier than previously thought, around 600 B.C.E.

T. Udayachandran, secretary of the state archaeological department, told the Hindustan Times that the civilization was “an Indigenous, well developed self-sustaining urban culture with an industry and script, indicating that the people of that era were highly literate.”

India’s largest known burial site is 4,000 yrs old, confirms carbon dating

India’s largest known burial site is 4,000 yrs old, confirms carbon dating

One day in 2005, Shriram Sharma, a farmer from Sanauli village Uttar Pradesh’s Baghpat district, was carrying about his day, and ploughing his field. Little did he know that what was otherwise part of his daily routine would lead to an accidental discovery of skeletons and copper pots, which would one day raise questions on ancient global history. 

He alerted the local media about his discovery, and soon, a team from the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) had arrived at the scene, to begin digging deep into three bighas (0.40052356 acres) of Sharma’s land. The first round of excavations lasted for 13 months, during which they found chariots, coffins, pots, skeletons, what could arguably be the world’s oldest copper helmet, and more, tentatively dating back to 2000 BCE. 

Interestingly, most wooden artefacts were layered with copper sheaths, inlays, and wires,  which prevented them from decomposing for nearly 4,000 years. “In the area where we excavated furnaces, we suspect that the superstructure was made of wood. But the sediment is very difficult to work with and retrieving wood impression is particularly tricky. Thank God for the copper inlays and covering, which helped us identify the findings,” Disha Ahluwalia, who was appointed the site-in charge in February, tells The Better India.

India’s largest known burial site is 4,000 yrs old, confirms carbon dating

The carbon dating tests confirmed that the burial site — where 125 burials were discovered — is 4,000 years old.  

The most striking aspect of the excavation has been the discovery of three chariots, which bring up questions regarding the Aryan Invasion theory. The design and size of the chariot indicate they were horse-driven and were contemporary to the Mesopotamian and Sumerian culture. According to historians, the horses were brought from Central Asia by the invading Aryan army around 1500 BC. Besides, the Harappan civilisation had chariots driven by bulls. 

The ASI carried two more rounds (in 2018 and 2019) of meticulous digging thereafter, bringing forth several intriguing theories and discoveries about the Sanauli burial site.

Needless to say, Sanauli has caught everyone’s attention, as these discoveries could be a major chapter piecing together history in this century. Discovery Plus recently released a 55-minute documentary called ‘Secrets of Sanauli — Discovery of the Century, made by director Neeraj Pandey and compered by Manoj Bajpayee. It follows the archaeological findings and questions the western hegemonic narratives. The theories, history and language have been simplified by experts including Dr VN Prabhakar – IIT Gandhinagar, Dr BR Mani – National Museum, and so on. 

Did Sanuali coexist with the Harappan civilisation? 

The archaeologists found a slew of antiques such as chariots, a torch, an antenna sword, highly decorated coffins, and helmets. The astonishingly well-preserved remains are similar to those found in the late Harappan phase. However, the Orche-Coloured Pottery (OCP) and copper-coated items are reasons enough to dismiss that Sanauli was part of the late Harappan phase. Hence, it could be that Sanauli was another Chalcolithic culture that existed alongside Harappa.

“The 2005 excavations helped us discover pottery of different sizes, besides beads and other material that were similar to those used in the Harappan civilisation. However, a chariot near a coffin is not seen anywhere in the Harappan sites,” Dr Sanjay Kumar Manjul, director of the ASI’s Institute of Archaeology and in-charge of the excavation, told Outlook.

Further, the bricks found on the in-situ site are different as well, “The Harappan bricks are smaller than Sanauli, but excavators could not identify the alignment or make sense of the structure. This has left many questions unanswered,” says Disha.  

Explaining the process of identifying the bricks and discovering a new element with Dr Manjul, she says, “After days of strenuous work, we noticed one brick in the structure was perfectly horizontal, and others which were falling. This one brick gave the impression that it is supported by some sort of structure or more bricks underneath. I decided to undercut the section and we found the fourth side of the collapsed wall. We understood that there are two layers to this structure and that it’s not a platform, but instead a walled structure. What was interesting was that two sides of the structure had collapsed inwards, whereas the third wall that I found after undercutting the section was outwards. As the level of the base was the same as that of the burial pits, it suggested that this was a structure built in a pit, where the two sides that collapsed inwards were supported by the natural sediment and then the rest of the structure was above the ground with a wooden superstructure. We could see the heavy use of wood everywhere.”

Of royalty & warfare

In 2018’s digging, the ASI team unearthed other items that gave further insight into the culture of Sanauli including warfare and royal borough.

The fresh evidence, comprising eight burials, screams of evidence of an elite class. A decorated horn comb with a peacock motif, copper mirror, armlet made of agate beads, vases, and bowls are a few examples of this. One royal coffin had a decorated lid with eight anthropomorphic figures such as headgear, and pipal leaf. A copper armour shaped like a torso was another item. Besides, ceramic pots were found next to the coffins, suggesting the possibility of rituals that were performed before the person was buried. 

The burials also hinted that the tribe consisted of warriors who used technologically advanced weaponry. For example, the antenna sword was placed in an upright position next to the skeletons of both, males and females (yes, women also may have fought wars as per Dr Manjul). Additionally, the swords have copper-covered hilts and medial ridge, which are sturdy enough for war. 

The three chariots made of wood and covered with thick copper sheets also denote wars. Unlike the ones found in Harappan culture, these chariots were smaller in size with thinner carts. This means that they could accommodate a maximum of two people according to Dr Manjul. Hence, they weren’t used as carriers. The chariots are two-wheeled and are fixed on an axle. This was supposedly linked to the yoke of a pair of animals by a long rope. 

Helmets and shields further affirm the possibility. Interestingly, the ASI team believes that the helmet could be the world’s oldest. “If you see the documentary, the excavator says ‘helmet’ or ‘copper pot’. But earlier, the excavator suggested that it’s a copper helmet. We are yet to be sure. It could be the earliest, because if it is a helmet, then no other such object predates Sanauli. The ones in the West are of later dates. But in my opinion, we should conduct more analysis,” says Disha. 

Meanwhile, the shields had two gender-specific designs. The ones found next to women had steatite inlay work and men burials had ones with copper designs. 

According to Dr Manjul, the ASI team had used modern and scientific techniques such as X-Ray, Handheld XRF, 3D scanning, CT scan and drone and Magnetometer surveys to analyse the startling findings. Both Dr Manjul, as well as Disha, reiterate that more studies will be conducted to unearth specific historic events and significance in future. 

Watch Dr Manjul’s presentation on the artefacts here: 

The real utopia: This ancient civilisation thrived without war

The real utopia: This ancient civilisation thrived without war

Many believe the idea of a utopian society is an impossible fantasy. But there may have been one mysterious, ancient group of people that was able to fulfil the dream of life without conflict or rulers.

Remains of the Indus civilisation, which flourished from 2600 to 1900 BC, show no clear signs of weapons, war or inequality. Many believe the idea of a utopian society is an impossible fantasy.

But there may have been one mysterious, ancient group of people that was able to fulfil the dream of life without conflict or rulers.

Many people believe that one mysterious, ancient society may have led a Utopian life. The Indus civilisation flourished from 2600 to 1900 BC, and it has been suggested that they lived in a real, functioning utopia

Remains of the Indus civilisation, which flourished from 2600 to 1900 BC, show no clear signs of weapons, war or inequality.

Robinson points out that archaeologists have uncovered just one depiction of humans fighting, and it is a partly mythical scene showing a female goddess with the horns of a goat and the body of a tiger.

There is also no evidence of horses – an animal that late became common in the region – suggesting they were not use to raid other towns and cities.

In the almost 100 years since the Indus civilisation was discovered, not a single royal palace or grand temple has been uncovered.

Mohenjo-daro – an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan – is 400 metres long, and five metres tall, and would have required a huge amount of man power to build

Speaking to Robinson, Neil MacGregor, former director of the British Museum, said: ‘What’s left of these great Indus cities gives us no indication of a society engaged with, or threatened by, war.

‘Is it going too far to see these Indus cities as an early, urban Utopia?’.

While Mr MacGregor sees the utopian theory as credible, others cast doubt on the total absence of war.

Richard Meadow, Director of the Zooarchaeology Laboratory at the Peabody Museum of Harvard University, said: ‘There has never been a society without conflict of greater or lesser scale.’

He argues that until the Indus script is deciphered, we cannot really know whether they lived this idyllic life. Large societies are usually overseen by a central government, yet findings suggest otherwise for the Indus civilisation.

So far, the only sculpture that might depict a ruler is of a bearded man, dubbed the ‘priest-king’ – due to his resemblance to Buddhist monks and Hindu priests.

Many of the structures and buildings, however, would have taken the coordination of tens of thousands of men, which some argue would have required a leader of sorts.

For example, Mohenjo-Daro – an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan – required a huge amount of manpower to build. 

The Indus covered more than 1,000 settlements across at least 800,000 square kilometres of what is now Pakistan, India and Afghanistan. Its remains were only discovered in the 1920s, yet it is now regarded as the beginning of Indian civilisation
Andrew Robinson, author of several books about the Indus, believes the key in understanding this civilisation, is cracking their script

While the Indus might sound like they lived a utopian fantasy, the civilisation mysteriously came to an end in around 1900 BC. Robinson believes the key in understanding this civilisation, is deciphering their script.

In an article published in Nature last year, he said: ‘More than 100 attempts at decipherment have been published by professional scholars and others since the 1920s.

‘Now – as a result of increased collaboration between archaeologists, linguists and experts in the digital humanities – it looks possible that the Indus script may yield some of its secrets.’

A board game was discovered from the Indus Valley Civilisation. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations of the Old World