Category Archives: INDIA

Rudra – Mighty Hindu God Of Death, Destruction, Hunting Who Heals Mortal Diseases

Rudra – Mighty Hindu God Of Death, Destruction, Hunting Who Heals Mortal Diseases

In the Rig Veda, an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns, some of them are dedicated to a powerful and complex god Rudra, praised as the ‘mightiest of the mighty.’ He is Lord of Yoga, the one who restores the wholeness of the absolute.

However, he is much more than that.

Rudra – Mighty Hindu God Of Death, Destruction, Hunting Who Heals Mortal Diseases

He is described as a mighty god, armed with a bow and black arrows, flying fast, wearing a scythe, accompanied by Maruts, who in Vedic and Hindu mythology, are the deities symbolizing storm, thunder, wind, thunder, and lightning, and so does the great Rudra himself.

In addition, he is associated with disease, misfortune, and even death, but as a hunter – dressed in animal skins, with long black hair pulled into a knot, and with a bow and black arrows – is also closely associated with mountains and forests.

To attest to his mighty powers, we must add that Rudra is also the king of medicines and a healer, as he could bring diseases and heal from them.

The people turned to him with prayers for mercy and health and called him “Having a sedative healing remedy,” “Holder of a thousand healing remedies,” or “The most healing of healers.”

Sometimes, he holds the arrow in his hand and acts as a destructive power and a plant (or a water vessel) in the other to demonstrate the revitalizing abilities that pulsate in plants, water, and heals.

To heal the illnesses of mortals, the mighty Rudra comes up with a much better idea than the one given to him by the god Brahma, who asked him to plunge into waters to create mortals.

According to Rigveda, Rudra decided to develop the plants and herbs to become the mortals’ best medicines. The fiery nature of Rudra makes him comparable to the qualities of a Vedic god of fire, Agni,  also one of the supreme deities of the Vedic lore.

It happens that Rudra (the Vedic precursor of Shiva, the destroyer) is remembered as ‘the roarer’ and the one ‘who eradicates problems from their roots. He is also associated with the god of death, Yama.

But scholars sometimes considered him as the “fertility god of the Indus valley, whose symbol was the bull. He is, however, sometimes depicted in the posture of a yogi. These aspects suggest a link to the later Shiva. In the Rig Veda, Rudra, whose wife’s name, Prsni (“water bag,”) is a bringer of life-giving rain and other boons. As a fertility god, he is represented by the phallus (or linga), which will take on increased importance in the Shiva cult.” 

His weapons are a bow, an arrow, and a trishula, which in Greek mythology is known as the trident.

The trishula (in Sanskrit, “triple-spear”) represents a mysterious symbol of great importance in India. It was later the weapon of Shiva (‘the destroyer’). Three prongs reflected Shiva’s function as creator, destroyer, and preserver and represented the Law (Dharma), the basic principles of personal or cosmic or existence – divine law.

This mighty deity of the Hindu pantheon developed later into the powerful god Shiva, with whom he was often associated as Rudra/Shiva. Young, fast, invincible, and untouchable, Rudra dwells in the north, with which, as well as with the west, everything cold, darkness, and evil are connected, according to the ancient Indian model of the world.

Rudra’s wife was Sati, the daughter of the lord of all creatures, Daksha. Sati was deeply in love with her husband, who was handsome, strong with powerful arms, and a body decorated with ornaments of gold and a brilliant necklace. His chariot is swift, and a club, lightning bolt, or bow and arrows never miss a target, making him a great danger to his enemies.

In excavated ruins of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa dated to the Indus Civilization that existed between 3000 and 2000 BC,) archaeologists found “a seated figure with crossed legs, three heads, and surrounded by animals.

“The figure is the position of meditation, which is still used by yogis nowadays. This nameless god is undoubtedly a precursor of Shiva, the Lord of the Three Worlds, the Prince of Ascetics, and the Protector of the Animal Kingdom.

Interestingly, the first name by which this god is found in the Vedas is – Rudra. Rudra is above all a violent god, the god of storms and destruction., who is also feared by the other gods, although there were  benevolent aspects even at that time.” 

Later, in post-Vedic mythology, the cult of Shiva developed from the cult of Rudra. His very name (and his epithets Pashupati, “master of cattle,” Sharva, etc.) later became one of the nicknames of Shiva.

The Hanging Pillar of Lepakshi Temple that Challenges Gravity

The Hanging Pillar of Lepakshi Temple that Challenges Gravity

Gravity, the powerful force that rules our world, seems rigid and invincible. Still, tucked away in southern India is a beautiful architectural marvel known as the “Hanging Pillar,” which is said to challenge this very force. Yes! You read that right.

It dates back to the 16th century. This remarkable monument is located within the Veerabhadra Temple in Lepakshi and is dedicated to Lord Shiva’s furious manifestation, Veerabhadra.

The temple is adorned with beautiful sculptures and paintings that grace almost every visible surface. It displays the distinguishing Vijayanagara-style architecture. The magnificence and historical importance of Lepakshi Temple makes it one of the most notable Vijayanagara temples, revered as a nationally conserved monument.

The temple is divided into three sections: the Garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum), the Arda Mantapa (antechamber), and the Mukha Mantapa/Natya Mantapa/Ranga Mantapa (assembly hall).  Nonetheless, the Hanging Pillar, indeed, is a testament to architectural ingenuity.

Location and Historical Significance

Veerabhadra Temple, Lepakshi.

The Lepakshi Temple, also known as the “Veerbhadra Temple,” is located in the Lepakshi village of Anantapur District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is an outstanding example of both engineering innovation and artistic skill. It has many components that add to its archaeological and aesthetic splendor, such as exquisitely carved statues of musicians and saints and those showing a sacred couple of deities –  Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati. In addition to its architectural significance, the temple is highly revered since the Skanda Purana refers to it as a “divyakshetra,” a place of worship of Lord Shiva.

The Lepakshi Temple was built in the 1530s CE by two brothers named Virupanna Nayaka and Viranna. During King Achutaraya’s reign, both served as governors for the Vijayanagar Empire.  You can find many Kannada language (predominantly spoken in southwestern India) inscriptions here.

The origins of Lepakshi are shrouded in mythology and narratives. According to one legend, Jatayu, a vulture deity depicted in the epic Ramayana, fought Ravana fiercely to save Sita, Lord Rama’s wife. Jatayu bravely fought after being hurt before collapsing to the ground. While Lord Rama and his brother Lakshmana were searching for Sita, they found Jatayu battling for his life, holding his last breath. When he found Jatayu in such a helpless state, overcome with grief, Lord Rama said the words “Le Pakshi,” which means “rise, bird” in Telugu.

The complex contains several other temples besides the Veerabhadra Temple, which is under consideration for UNESCO’s world heritage list (tentative list.) These include the shrines of Hanumalinga, Raghunatha, Parvati, Ramalinga, and Papanasesvara. There are many other attractions in this area, in addition to the well-known Hanging Pillar.

Nandi, Lepakshi Temple.

The Monolithic Bull, called the Nandi, is another noteworthy feature of Lepakshi. This enormous bull (approximately 20-foot high and 30-foot long) sculpture was cut from a single granite rock.

The Naga Shiva Linga is another impressive piece of architecture. The structure’s seven-headed hooded serpent and lingam (a representation of Lord Shiva) together make for a stunning sight. Lepakshi provides a fascinating cultural and historical experience for sure.

Is the Hanging Pillar Actually a Miracle?

The Hanging Pillar of Lepakshi Temple that Challenges Gravity
Hanging Pillar.

The Hanging Pillar in Lepakshi, which is made of granite, is a spectacular phenomenon that draws a lot of attention. Among the temple’s 70 pillars, this one stands out because it is hanging without touching the ground. Owing to this, many visitors to the temple cannot resist passing a piece of cloth or paper beneath the bottom of the pillar to confirm its authenticity. 

The puzzle of how this pillar manages to remain hung without any support is still unexplained and remains a mystery. It adds an aura of intrigue and surprise to the temple, supported by around 70 pillars. The pillar is also engraved with beautiful carvings.

As per the local folklore, in India’s pre-independence era, a curious British engineer once tried to move the hanging pillar to figure out the source of its support. Realizing the importance of each pillar in safeguarding the balance of the whole structure, he wisely stopped, saving the structure from collapsing. Despite a slight displacement, the pillar stood still. This led to the displacement of the hanging pillar.

Another folktale talks of British engineers who wanted to make renovations and chose to remove the pillar. It was so perfectly fixed that they couldn’t move it. But they didn’t give up. Therefore, they could only move it slightly, and they realized it wouldn’t be possible to take it out completely, resulting in the pillar being slightly displaced from its original position. Considering these are folklore, the mystery still prevails around the hanging pillar.

A 2,300-Year-Old Elephant Sculpture Discovered in India

A 2,300-Year-Old Elephant Sculpture Discovered in India

A 2,300-Year-Old Elephant Sculpture Discovered in India
Elephants commonly appear in Buddhist art from the period and archaeologists think it is a relic of early Buddhist worship in the region.

Archaeologists in eastern India have unearthed a statue of an elephant they think was carved about 2,300 years ago when Buddhism was the main religion in the region. 

The statue is about 3 feet (1 meter) high and carved from rock in the same style as other Buddhist statues of elephants found across the state of Odisha.

Historian Anil Dhir and other members of an archaeological team from the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) unearthed the statue in April at a village on the banks of the Daya River in Odisha’s Puri District. “We were surveying the Daya River Valley to document its heritage,” Dhir told Live Science in an email. “This area is rich in artifacts from the ancient Buddhism which flourished here.”

The elephant statue is carved from rock in the style of statues found at other sites nearby from about 2,300 years ago when the region was strongly Buddhist.

The team found several other buried archaeological relics around the village, including architectural pieces from a Buddhist temple, he added. 

The elephant statue is very similar to one found at Dhauli, also known as Dhaulagiri, an ancient center of Buddhism about 12 miles (19 kilometers) upstream, Dhir said. That statue has been dated to between 272 B.C. and 231 B.C. 

Buddha and Hinduism

A team of archaeologists and historians from the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) discovered the statue in April.

Buddhism originated in northern India in the sixth or fifth century B.C. and was one of the main religions under Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire in the second century B.C., the historian Upinder Singh of Ashoka University in India wrote in “History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century” (Pearson India, 2009). The empire covered most of India, including what’s now Pakistan, but not the very south of the subcontinent.

And from the third century B.C. until about the second century A.D., Buddhism “held sway” throughout much of India and the Odisha region in particular, Dhir said.

But Buddhism’s influence declined as its practices became assimilated into the myriad traditions of Hinduism and when Islam became more influential in the region after the 10th century; and while Buddhism is now widespread in other parts of Asia, it is only followed by about 0.7% of the modern population of India, according to a 2011 census. (The Buddha is worshipped, however, in some Hindu ceremonies, sometimes as an avatar of the god Vishnu.)

According to a statement by INTACH, the floodplains of the Daya and Mandakini rivers are rich in Buddhist antiquities.

Records also suggest that a fort was built at the site in the 16th century, and the INTACH team has found remnants of its defensive walls and moat.

Elephant symbolism

The archaeologists also found a carved laterite pillar nearby, which is an arrangement seen at other early Buddhist archaeological sites in the region.

Dhir said the elephant was a common motif in Buddhism and could be seen in many Buddhist monuments.

The INTACH statement said the recently unearthed elephant statue was found near a pillar of laterite — a reddish clay material — and other stone blocks: Similar finds were also discovered alongside another elephant statue found in the village of Kaima in Odisha’s Jajpur District. 

Art historian Christian Luczanits of SOAS at the University of London told Live Science that elephants were important royal animals in ancient India and symbolized the monsoon rains and fertility. 

Peter Harvey, a historian of Buddhism and a “faith advisor” at York St John University in the U.K., added that the elephant was also the mythical animal ridden by the pre-Buddhist god Indra, who was identified in early Indian Buddhism as a disciple of the Buddha and named Sakka (also spelled Śakra).

The elephant’s direct connection to Buddhism came about from a story that the mother of Siddhartha Gautama — the Indian prince who would become the Buddha — dreamt after he was conceived that “an auspicious white elephant [had] entered her womb,” Harvey said. 

Rishi Rajpopat, the Indian Ph.D. student at Cambridge, cracks 2,500-year-old ‘father of linguistics’ Panini code

Rishi Rajpopat, the Indian Ph.D. student at Cambridge, cracks 2,500-year-old ‘father of linguistics’ Panini code

A grammatical problem which has defeated Sanskrit scholars since the 5th Century BC has finally been solved by an Indian PhD student at the University of Cambridge, it emerged as his thesis was published on Thursday.

Rishi Rajpopat made the breakthrough by decoding a rule taught by Panini, known as the father of linguistics, and is now encapsulated in his thesis entitled ‘In Panini, We Trust: Discovering the Algorithm for Rule Conflict Resolution in the Astadhyayi.’

According to the university, leading Sanskrit experts have described Rajpopat’s discovery as “revolutionary”.

Dr Rishi Rajpopat, whose PhD thesis cracks the remaining code of Pāṇini’s language machine (Rahil Rajpopat/ Cambridge University )

The 2,500-year-old algorithm decoded by him makes it possible, for the first time, to accurately use Panini’s so-called “language machine”.

Panini’s grammar, known as the Astadhyayi, relied on a system that functioned like an algorithm. Feed in the base and suffix of a word and it should turn them into grammatically correct words and sentences through a step-by-step process.

However, two or more of Panini’s rules often apply simultaneously, resulting in conflicts. Panini taught a “metarule”, which is traditionally interpreted by scholars as meaning “in the event of a conflict between two rules of equal strength, the rule that comes later in the grammar’s serial order wins”. However, this often led to grammatically incorrect results.

Rajpopat rejected the traditional interpretation of the metarule. Instead, he argued that Panini meant that between rules applicable to the left and right sides of a word respectively, Panini wanted us to choose the rule applicable to the right side. Employing this interpretation, he found the Panini’s “language machine” produced grammatically correct words with almost no exceptions.

Panini’s system is thought to have been written around 500 BC.

“I had a eureka moment in Cambridge,” recalls Rajpopat. “After nine months trying to crack this problem, I was almost ready to quit, I was getting nowhere.

So, I closed the books for a month and just enjoyed the summer…. Then, begrudgingly I went back to work, and, within minutes, as I turned the pages, these patterns started emerging, and it all started to make sense…,” said the 27-year-old scholar. It would take him another two and half years before he would get to the finish line.

“My student Rishi has cracked it – he has found an extraordinarily elegant solution to a problem which has perplexed scholars for centuries.

This discovery will revolutionise the study of Sanskrit at a time when interest in the language is on the rise,” said professor Vincenzo Vergiani, Sanskrit professor and Rajpopat’s PhD supervisor. Sanskrit is an ancient and classical Indo-European language. It is spoken in India by an estimated 25,000 people today.

Prehistoric Stone Tools Found in Western India

Prehistoric Stone Tools Found in Western India

Prehistoric Stone Tools Found in Western India
Several small and large stone tools were found during excavations

Over the years rock carvings of a previously unknown civilisation have been found in India’s western state of Maharashtra. Now, a cave in the same region is promising to shed more light on the creators of these prehistoric artworks and their lives. The BBC Marathi’s Mayuresh Konnur reports.

The cave, located around 10km (six miles) away from Koloshi village in the Konkan region of western Maharashtra, was discovered by a group of researchers last year. Excavations earlier this year revealed several stone tools in the cave that date back tens of thousands of years.

“Nowhere in the world can we find rock art of this kind,” says Dr Tejas Garge, who heads Maharashtra’s archaeology department. Archaeologists believe these artefacts can help us find out more about the way our ancestors lived.

Two rounds of excavations were conducted in the cave

The cave, which is situated in a secluded forest in Sindhudurg, was discovered by researchers who were studying rock carvings in nearby areas.

Excavation work was conducted in two rounds, during which archaeologists dug two trenches inside the cave. Several big and small stone tools dating back to the Mesolithic period – also called the middle stone age – have been found.

“The microliths, or the small stone tools, date back to around 10,000 years, whereas the larger tools could be around 20,000 years old,” says Rutivij Apte, who has been researching the Konkan petroglyphs and was part of the excavation team.

Dr Parth Chauhan, an archaeologist, says chemical processes are used to analyse any residue that might be present on the edges of the artefacts. This can help determine what the object was used for.

“It will take a couple of months to find out the exact time period these stone tools belong to. But right now, we can say that these artefacts are between 10,000 to 48,000 years old.”

Microliths – small stone tools – were discovered inside the cave

Maharashtra’s laterite-rich Konkan plateau where this cave was discovered is also a treasure trove of prehistoric art. In the past explorers have discovered rock carvings of animals, birds, human figures and geometrical designs hidden under layers of soil in several villages here.

So far, 1700 petroglyphs – or rock carvings – have been found at 132 locations in 76 villages in Sindhudurg and the nearby Ratnagiri district.

Several petroglyphs – rock carvings – have been found in Maharashtra’s Konkan region

Saili Palande Datar, a Pune-based art historian and writer, says these carvings offer great insights into the life and habits of prehistoric man.

She gives the example of an iconic rock carving of a human figure found near Barsu village in the Ratnagiri district.

The carving is embossed on a rock and seems to be of a male figure who is holding what appears to be tigers and other wild animals in both hands.

“There is an amazing sense of symmetry in this carving, which points to a high level of skill. The picture also depicts the relationship man shared with animals,” Ms Datar says.

He says that seals of the Harappan civilisation – one of the oldest civilisations in human history that flourished in the Indian subcontinent – also depict the close relationship man shared with animals.

“The seals have images of large animals like tigers and buffaloes and of man hunting animals,” she says.

Experts say that mysteries around these prehistoric rock carvings are far from being solved, but a Unesco tag – natural and cultural landmarks from around the world are singled out for their “outstanding universal value” to humanity – can help preserve them for generations.

Eight rock carving sites in the Konkan region are already a part of Unesco’s tentative list of World Heritage sites, which is the first step towards getting the tag for any culturally-significant site.

10,000-Year-Old Rock Paintings Depict UFOs And Aliens

10,000-Year-Old Rock Paintings Depict UFOs And Aliens

The State Department of Archaeology and Culture in Chhattisgarh, India, is seeking assistance from the Indian Space Research Organisation to research a set of ancient rock paintings found inside caves near the town of Charama in Kanker district, in the tribal Bastar region, according to a news report in the Times of India. 

According to one archaeologist, the art reflects the belief among ancient humans that we are not alone in the universe.

The Indian state of Chhattisgarh has an abundance of ancient rock paintings, according to their website. Many sites have paintings of humans and animals in everyday scenes.

Old Rock Paintings

However, some researchers have referred to more unusual paintings, such as those depicting what appear to be kangaroos and giraffes, which are not native to the country, as well as human-fish hybrid creatures. Now, it is claimed that aliens and UFOs can be added to this collection.

“The paintings are done in natural colours that have hardly faded despite the years. The strangely carved figures are seen holding weapon-like objects and do not have clear features. Especially, the nose and mouth are missing. In a few pictures, they are even shown wearing space suits,” said archaeologist JR Bhagat.

Bhagat, who has studied rock art, claims that the newly-discovered depictions date back some 10,000 years, although the dating method has not been clarified.

Bhagat suggests that the images may depict extra-terrestrials and UFOs as the paintings include large, humanoid beings descending from the sky, some wearing what looks like a helmet or antennae, as well as a disc-shaped craft with three rays (or legs) coming from its base.

“The findings suggest that humans in prehistoric times may have seen or imagined beings from other planets which still creates curiosity among people and researchers.

“Extensive research is needed for further findings. Chhattisgarh presently doesn’t have any such expert who could give clarity on the subject,” Bhagat told the Times of India.

One of the ancient rock paintings

Bhagat explained that there are several beliefs among locals from the area.

While few worship the paintings, others narrate stories they have heard from ancestors about “rohela people”, which translates to “the small sized ones”. 

According to legend, the rohela people used to land in the sky in a round-shaped flying object and take away one or two persons of the village who never returned.  However, Bhagat does concede, 

“We can’t refute the possibility of imagination by prehistoric men.”

Bhagat has not made reference to the fact that the paintings in question depict what, in other contexts, archaeologists typically identify as shamanic images of humans, human-animal hybrids, and geometric forms. Images of figures with antlers, antennae, or spirit rays are familiar, and in fact quite common, in shamanic art.

The research on the rock paintings is ongoing, and Bhagat says more archaeologists will be consulted to help identify the mysterious creatures and objects in the ancient artwork.

An Unknown Ancient Civilization in India Carved This Rock Art

An Unknown Ancient Civilization in India Carved This Rock Art

A passion for hiking first brought two engineers into the hills and plateaus of India’s picturesque Konkan coast. But now they return for clues to the identification of a lost civilization.

An Unknown Ancient Civilization in India Carved This Rock Art
One of the human figures depicted in the newly documented petroglyphs

As BBC Marathi’s Mayureesh Konnur reports, the duo, Sudhir Risbood and Manoj Marathe, have helped catalogue hundreds of rock carvings etched into the stone of hilltops in the western part of India’s Maharashtra state.

The depictions include a crocodile, elephant, birds, fish and human figures. They may date back to 10,000 B.C., and they come from the hands of people who belonged to an as-yet-unknown civilization. Some of the petroglyphs were hidden beneath soil and mud deposited during the intervening millennia. Others were well-known by locals and considered holy.

Risbood and Marathe have been hiking for years, leading a small group of enthusiastic explorers to interview locals and rediscover this lost art. “We walked thousands of kilometres,” Risbood tells BBC Marathi.

“People started sending photographs to us and we even enlisted schools in our efforts to find them. We made students ask their grandparents and other village elders if they knew about any other engravings.”

The region had three documented petroglyph sites before the hikers started their search, reported Mayuri Phadnis for the Pune Mirror in 2015.

The duo initially identified 10 new sites home to 86 petroglyphs. “Judging by the crudity, they seem to have been made in the Neolithic era,” Sachin Joshi, a researcher with Pune’s Deccan College of Archeology said.

Just a few months later, in a follow-up story for the Pune Mirror, Phadnis reported that thanks to supporting from the district administration, the hiking group identified 17 more sites, and its petroglyph count had reached above 200.

“We have long feared that these sites would be destroyed before more research could be done on them,” Risbood told Phadnis of the Pune Mirror. “With the administration stepping in, we believe this heritage can be saved.”

The petroglyphs are featured on the Ratnagiri district’s tourism website, and researchers are working to decipher their meanings and figure out who may have carved them.

The director of the Maharashtra state archaeology department, Tejas Gage, tells BBC Marathi that since the petroglyphs primarily show animals and people, he suspects the original artists may have come from a hunter-gatherer society.

“We have not found any pictures of farming activities,” he says. “This man knew about animals and sea creatures. That indicates he was dependent on hunting for food.”

BBC Marathi notes that the state government has allocated 240 million rupees (about $3.3 million) for further study of 400 of the identified petroglyphs.

Indian Farmer Discovers 4,000-year-old Copper Weapons Buried Under a Field

Indian Farmer Discovers 4,000-year-old Copper Weapons Buried Under a Field

We know India is a rich country when it comes to its heritage and culture. Although a lot of evidence has been lost, through destruction, loot or other reasons, findings from time to time prove that indeed India is a heritage-rich country.

We know India is a rich country when it comes to its heritage and culture. Although a lot of evidence has been lost, through destruction, loot or other reasons, findings from time to time prove that indeed India is a heritage-rich country.

It has given the world the teachings of Buddha to learn from, the richness of the Himalayas that make India the hub of a spiritual journey, and more. 

In a recent finding, archaeologists in Agra have found nearly 4000-year-old weapons from beneath the ground in Mainpuri.

The weapons extracted include large swords, some close to 4 feet, and arms having sharp sophisticated shapes. The archaeologists have termed the finding ‘exciting’.

About the finding

According to reports, in the village of Ganeshpur in Mainpuri, a farmer was levelling his field when he found a large number of copper swords and harpoons beneath the soil.

The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) found a variety of swords, some that archaeologists are calling “antenna swords and harpoons”, with a hook at the bottom.

Some of these weapons had a starfish-like shape. These copper hoards, 77 in number, possibly date back to 1600-2000 BC – the later stages of the Chalcolithic Age (the transition period between the Neolithic and Bronze Ages).  

The findings according to Vasant Swarnkar, D.

In recent Excavations at Sanauli, Baghpat, UP under Dr SK Manjul,
@ASIGoI finds Coffin Burials, furnaces & fascinating artefacts’. The present excavation is carried out to understand the extension of the burial site and also the habitation area in relation to earlier findings in 2018.

The Director of Conservation and spokesperson, suggest that the inhabitants of the area were engaged in fighting, much like the 2018 findings in Sanauli in Baghpat, although that was a burial site.

Earlier in 2018, the ASI in an excavation at Sanauli, Baghpat, Uttar Pradesh found coffin burials, furnaces, and fascinating artefacts.

In 2019, it carried out an excavation to understand the extension of the burial site and also the habitation area in relation to earlier findings. 

The find will undergo Thermoluminescence dating, a technique usually used on pottery and other ceramic material. According to Director Swarnkar, similar discoveries have been made in the past in Sakatpur in Saharanpur, Madarpur in Moradabad, and Saifai district.