Category Archives: ENGLAND

4-Year-Old Girl Finds Dinosaur Footprint On Beach In Wales

4-Year-Old Girl Finds Dinosaur Footprint On Beach In Wales

A four-year-old girl, walking while vacationing with her family in Wales, found a very well preserved, and probably a new trace of dinosaur tracks. The footprints found are from an extinct species of crocodilians, extinct ancestors of modern crocodiles.

4-Year-Old Girl Finds Dinosaur Footprint On Beach In Wales
The footprint dates back 220 million years

The dinosaur that made the print probably stood 30 inches (75 centimeters) tall and 8.2 feet (2.5 meters) long. Its 4-inch (10 cm) track looks similar to that of the dinosaur Coelophysis, though that particular species lived in North America, not what is now Europe. 

Lily Wilder, a preschooler on a stroll with her father at Bendricks Bay, discovered the track.

“It was Lily and Richard (her father) who discovered the footprint,” Lily’s mother Sally Wilder said in a statement. “Lily saw it as they were walking along, and said ‘Daddy look.’

When Richard came home and showed me the photograph, I thought it looked amazing. Richard thought it was too good to be true. I was put in touch with experts who took it from there.”

The print was on a loose rock and has now been removed to National Museum Wales (Amgueddfa Cymru in Welsh) with permission from Natural Resources Wales, the government-sponsored body that regulates conservation and environmental issues. 

“This fossilized dinosaur footprint from 220 million years ago is one of the best-preserved examples from anywhere in the U.K. and will really aid paleontologists to get a better idea about how these early dinosaurs walked,” Cindy Howells, the paleontology curator at the museum, said in the statement. 

The fossil is so detailed that the claws and pads of the feet are visible. The print is a type known as a grallator, meaning a bipedal theropod dinosaur with three toes created it.

The dinosaur lived at the beginning of the Triassic period when the region was a desert dotted with occasional saline lakes.

Dinosaurs had evolved only about 10 million years before this mysterious three-toed creature walked this landscape, so its print is a tantalizing clue into early dinosaur history, according to National Museum Wales.

“During the COVID pandemic, scientists from Amgueddfa Cymru have been highlighting the importance of nature on people’s doorstep, and this is a perfect example of this,” Howells said. “Obviously, we don’t all have dinosaur footprints on our doorstep, but there is a wealth of nature local to you if you take the time to really look close enough.”

Why is the area important?

A number of footprints have been found on the stretch of coastline

The Bendricks is a stretch of coastline between Barry and Sully in the Vale of Glamorgan. It is an important paleontologist site and a site of special scientific interest. The south Wales group of the Geologists’ Association called it “the best site in Britain for dinosaur tracks of the Triassic Period”.

It said: “The footprints can be difficult to see. Many are covered at high tide so it is best to go after high tide when the tracks may retain small puddles of water.

“It is also easier to spot the footprints when the sun is low in the sky as longer shadows will help throw the footprints into relief.

Archaeologists on HS2 line uncover grounds of perfectly preserved 16th-century manor gardens

Archaeologists on HS2 line uncover grounds of perfectly preserved 16th-century manor gardens

The remains of beautiful gardens belonging to a 16th-century manor house have been uncovered by archaeologists clearing ground for the high-speed HS2 rail line. The finding, near Coleshill on the outskirts of Birmingham, has been dubbed ‘Warwickshire’s answer to Hampton Court’.

Through a continuous excavation alongside the ruins of Coleshill Manor and its octagonal moat, which were first picked up by archaeologists two years ago, evidence of the large ornamental garden was discovered. Sir Robert Digby, who owned the house in its heyday, is thought to have married an Irish heiress and designed the 1,000 feet (300 m) long gardens to display his wealth and status.

HS2 and its archaeologist partners Wessex Archaeology have now released drone images of the area showing the outline of the enormous garden. Stunning aerial photos show well-preserved gravel paths, planting beds, garden pavilion foundations, and ornaments organized in a geometric pattern.

Archaeologists clearing land for the high speed HS2 train line have unearthed the remnants of stunning gardens belonging to a 16th century manor house
Archaeologists on HS2 line uncover grounds of perfectly preserved 16th-century manor gardens
Evidence of the large ornamental garden has been found by an ongoing dig alongside the remains of Coleshill Manor and its octagonal moat which were first picked up by archaeologists two years ago
This artist’s impression shows how the Coleshill Manor and its octagonal moat would have contained the lavish gardens around the year 1600

The 500-year-old site has drawn comparisons to London’s Hampton Court Palace and Kenilworth Castle and has been described as ‘one of the most exciting Elizabethan gardens’ ever found in England. Dr. Paul Stamper is a specialist in English gardens and landscape history and works at the University of Leicester.

He said: ‘This is one of the most exciting Elizabethan gardens that’s ever been discovered in this country.

‘The scale of preservation at this site is really exceptional and is adding considerably to our knowledge of English gardens around 1600.

‘There have only been three or four investigations of gardens of this scale over the last 30 years, including Hampton Court, Kirby in Northamptonshire, and Kenilworth Castle, but this one was entirely unknown.

‘The garden doesn’t appear in historical records, there are no plans of it, it’s not mentioned in any letters or visitors’ accounts.

‘The form of the gardens suggest they were designed around 1600, which fits in exactly with the documentary evidence we have about the Digby family that lived here.

‘Sir Robert Digby married an Irish heiress, raising him to the ranks of the aristocracy.

‘We suspect he rebuilt his house and laid out the huge formal gardens measuring 300 meters from end to end, signifying his wealth.’

Excavations are ongoing at the HS2 site to learn more about the Coleshill Manor, its moat, and the newly-discovered gardens
A Wessex Archaeologist show post medieval pottery from the Coleshill Medieval Manor site

HS2’s Historic Environment Manager, Jon Millward said: ‘It’s fantastic to see HS2’s huge archaeology programme making another major contribution to our understanding of British history.

‘This is an incredibly exciting site, and the team has made some important new discoveries that unlock more of Britain’s past.’

Wessex Archaeology’s Project Officer, Stuart Pierson added: ‘For the dedicated fieldwork team working on this site, it’s a once in a career opportunity to work on such an extensive garden and manor site, which spans 500 years.

‘Evidence of expansive formal gardens of national significance and hints of connections to Elizabeth I and the civil war provide us with a fascinating insight into the importance of Coleshill and its surrounding landscape.

‘From our original trench evaluation work, we knew there were gardens, but we had no idea how extensive the site would be.

‘As work has progressed, it’s been particularly interesting to discover how the gardens have been changed and adapted over time with different styles.

‘We’ve also uncovered structures such as pavilions and some exceptional artifacts including smoking pipes, coins, and musket balls, giving us an insight into the lives of people who lived here.

‘The preservation of the gardens is unparalleled.

‘We’ve had a big team of up to 35 archaeologists working on this site over the last two years conducting trench evaluations, geophysical work, and drone surveys as well as the archaeological excavations.’

Evidence of the manor, known as Coleshill Hall, and its previous occupants point towards a great feud between the Digby family and their rivals, the famed de Montfort clan, who now have a university named after them.

The hall came into the hands of Simon Digby in the late 15th century and the change of ownership set in motion huge alterations to the landscape around Coleshill and the hall, including a deer park and the formal gardens.

Excavations have revealed structures dating to the late medieval period, with evidence of a large gatehouse alluding to a possible 14th or 15th-century date.

‘Britain’s Atlantis’ found at bottom of North sea – a huge undersea world swallowed by the sea in 7000BC

‘Britain’s Atlantis’ found at bottom of North sea – a huge undersea world swallowed by the sea in 7000BC

Doggerland was a region of land that connected Great Britain to mainland Europe before and during the last Ice Age. It was then gradually flooded by rising sea levels around 6,500–6,200 BCE. Geological surveys have suggested that it stretched from Britain’s east coast to the Netherlands and the western coasts of Germany and the peninsula of Jutland.

In the Mesolithic period, it was possibly a rich human habitat, but rising sea levels eventually reduced it to low-lying islands until its final destruction, perhaps following a tsunami caused by the Storegga Slide.

The archaeological potential of the area had first been discussed in the early 20th century, but interest intensified in 1931 when a commercial trawler operating between the sandbanks and shipping hazards of the Leman Bank and Ower Bank east of Wash dragged up a barbed antler point that dated to a time when the area was tundra. Vessels have dragged up remains of a mammoth, lion and other land animals, and small numbers of prehistoric tools and weapons.

A woolly mammoth skull discovered by fishermen in the North Sea, at Celtic and Prehistoric Museum, Ireland Author Omigos.

British scientists and researchers have recently started using 4D technology to explore the remains of an area inhabited before sea levels destroyed it over 7,000 years ago.  Historians believe that the area spanned over 100,000 square miles and was home to dozens of prehistoric Britons. 

It was once known as Doggerland.  Using 4D technology, researchers will show how Doggerland was colonized and inhabited before being washed away.  The researchers like to call this area “Britain’s Atlantis”.

Over the years, experts from Bradford and Nottingham have worked on the multi-million pound 4D project.  With the tool, they hope to find evidence of flint tools, animal DNA, and pollen from plants.  One of the researchers working on the project, Mr. Vince Gaffney, says that he hopes the 4D tool will find something so other researchers can use the information.

Historians believe that Doggerland was submerged sometime between the years of 18,000 and 5,500 BC. 

The area was just recently found by divers in the area; they were doing research three years ago to find more oil resources when they discovered the remains of the other world.

Some historians believe that this area could have been home to thousands of people and was most likely once the heartland of Europe. After the divers’ discovery, climatologists, archaeologists, and geophysicists mapped the area and found out this Atlantis stretched from Denmark to Scotland.

This could be a leftover from Doggerland

Until the middle Pleistocene, Britain was a peninsula of Europe, connected by a massive chalk anticline, the Weald–Artois Anticline across the Straits of Dover. During the Anglian glaciation, approximately 450,000 years ago, an ice sheet filled much of the North Sea, with a large proglacial lake in the southern part fed by the Rhine, Scheldt, and Thames river systems.

The catastrophic overflow of this lake carved a channel through the anticline, leading to the formation of the Channel River, which carried the combined Scheldt and Thames rivers into the Atlantic. It probably created the potential for Britain to become isolated from the continent during periods of high sea level, although some scientists argue that the final break did not occur until a second ice-dammed lake overflowed during the MIS8 or MIS6 glaciations, around 340,000 or 240,000 years ago.

Map showing the hypothetical extent of Doggerland (c. 8,000 BC), which provided a land bridge between Great Britain and continental Europe. – Max Naylor

During the most recent glaciation, the Last Glacial Maximum that ended in this area around 18,000 years ago, the North Sea and almost all of the British Isles were covered with glacial ice and the sea level was about 120 m (390 ft) lower than it is today.

After that, the climate became warmer and during the Late Glacial Maximum much of the North Sea and the English Channel was an expanse of low-lying tundra, around 12,000 BC extending to the modern northern point of Scotland

With the new technology, there is now research on two more North Sea valleys being led by Mr. Gaffney.  The project is funded by a European grant.

Mr. Gaffney and his team hope to use remote sensing data to reconstruct the ancient landscape.  Besides this research, the team hopes to get some core sediment samples from the landscape to eventually create a map showing rivers, lakes, hills, and coastlines.

After the area slowly started sinking into the water, a storm surged and the sea levels rose abruptly, creating an island around 6,500 BC.  One thousand years after the first storm, the whole island was then submerged and lost.

The team hopes to learn more about the lifestyles of the territories.  One researcher from Wales says that the project will let the team look into the ways of the people and also what it was like to live in the Mesolithic period. 

The new 4D technology will open up new doors for researchers and historians to find out more about territories, colonies, and people from thousands of years in the past.

The Extraordinary Discovery of a 1,000-Year-Old Chinese Coin in the UK May Give Proof of a Global Medieval Trade Route

The Extraordinary Discovery of a 1,000-Year-Old Chinese Coin in the UK May Give Proof of a Global Medieval Trade Route

A newly discovered medieval Chinese coin, the second ever found in England, points to the possible existence of a vast medieval trade route spanning much of the Eastern hemisphere.

Discovered via a metal detector in a field in Hampshire, the copper-alloy coin dates to the Northern Song dynasty, between 1008 and 1016, and would have likely circulated through the 14th century, according to the Times.

The find follows the discovery of a similar coin, dated from 1068 and 1077, in Cheshire in 2018.

The Extraordinary Discovery of a 1,000-Year-Old Chinese Coin in the UK May Give Proof of a Global Medieval Trade Route
A copper-alloy Chinese coin of the Northern Song emperor Zhenzong, dated 1008–16, found near Petersfield, Hampshire.

“If they did arrive at some point in the medieval period, then they would help illustrate the existence of very long-distance, indirect trading networks and contacts in this era,” Cambridge historian and archaeologist Caitlin Green, who wrote a blog post about the find, told Artnet News in an email.

When the Chinese coin first turned up, researchers at the British Museum wrote that “it is doubtful that this is a genuine medieval find (i.e. present in the country due to trade and lost accidentally) but more likely a more recent loss from a curated collection.”

The distribution of archaeological and textual evidence for the presence of medieval Chinese pottery (black open circles) and coins (blue dots) west of India, set against the maximum extent of the Mongol Empire in the late thirteenth century in red; the map is based on Whitehouse 1972, Cribb and Potts 1996, Vigano 2011, Vigano 2014, Zhao 2015, Meicun and Zhang 2017, Василев 2017.

But now that there’s been a second discovery of a similar nature, Green believes that conclusion has been called into question, and that the case for medieval trade links between China and the UK has become much more convincing—especially since both coins turned up in areas where medieval and early post-medieval material has previously been discovered.

“We have only a handful of finds of material from East Asia from pre-modern England,” Green said. “But interestingly, one of the other pieces is a piece of imported Chinese pottery from a 14th-century excavated context at Winchester, which is only 20 miles from the new coin find.”

A Northern Song dynasty coin from China, minted during the Xining reign between 1068 and 1077, found in Cheshire.

And Green has found other evidence of exchange between the two distant lands. There are historical accounts of Englishmen in the Mongol empire in the 13th century, and of Mongol envoys visiting England in 1264. Antique Chinese artifacts have also been found in other parts of Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

Nevertheless, Green cautioned that these discoveries may have made their way to the UK in more recent times, especially since these were “metal-detected finds and not excavated from sealed archaeological contexts.”

“If there’s no other context, I’d suggest it’s just a random coin-find,” Helen Wang, who identified the coin for the UK’s Portable Antiquities Scheme, told the organization.

“Chinese coins were taken on ships from China to [southeast] Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, so this coin could have come that way (at any date after 1008) or fallen out of a pocket not so long ago.”

4,000 Years old Anglo-Saxon Settlement and Cemetery Unearthed in England

4,000 Years old Anglo-Saxon Settlement and Cemetery Unearthed in England

The Northampton Chronicle & Echo reports that an Anglo-Saxon settlement and cemetery, and Bronze Age barrows and burials, were discovered in England’s East Midlands during an archaeological investigation conducted by researchers from the Museum of London Archaeology ahead of a development project.

Traces of more than 20 structures were unearthed at the Anglo-Saxon settlement site. Weapons, cosmetic kits, combs, thousands of beads, some 150 brooches, 75 wrist clasps, and 15 chatelaines were recovered from the more than 150 Anglo-Saxon burials. 

The site was excavated as part of pre-construction planning requirements at Overstone Farm where Barratt and David Wilson homes intend to build two to five-bedroom homes, a school and amenities, as part of a new housing development.

Archaeologists uncovered the site during pre-construction planning requirements.

Jewellery, weapons and more were found.

An archaeology firm – Museum of London Archaeology (Mola) – was appointed and over the course of 12 months, the archaeologists undertook detailed excavation and recording across a total of 15 hectares.

The work revealed 154 Anglo-Saxon burials, many containing grave goods including weapons, beads and brooches. Simon Markus, project manager at MoLA, said: “The Overstone site contains by far the biggest Anglo-Saxon cemetery ever found in Northamptonshire.

Jewellery, weapons and more were found.

“It is also rare to find both an Anglo-Saxon settlement and a cemetery in a single excavation.

An overview of the site in Overstone.

4,000 Years old Anglo-Saxon Settlement and Cemetery Unearthed in England
An overview of the site in Overstone.

“The excavations will help us understand the way people lived in both the Anglo- Saxon period, around 1,500 years ago as well as the Bronze Age, nearly 4,000 years ago.

“The human remains will tell us about diet, health and even the origins of the people themselves whilst their buildings can teach us what their day-to-day lives were like and how they utilised the local landscape in these two different periods.”

Jewellery found on the site included roughly 150 brooches, 15 rings, 2,000 beads, 75 wrist clasps and 15 chatelaines – decorative belt hooks.

Other findings included weapons such as spears and shields and everyday items like cosmetic kits and combs.

The site also contains a previously unknown Anglo-Saxon settlement of 22 structures, with 20 more Anglo-Saxon buildings scattered around the site, together with earlier prehistoric evidence including three Bronze Age round barrows, 46 prehistoric burials, and four Bronze Age buildings.

John Dillion, managing director at Barratt and David Wilson Homes South Midlands, said: “We’re blown away by the findings at our site in Overstone and have enjoyed learning more about what the land was previously used for.

“It is amazing to think that settlers have been building homes on this site for around 4,000 years, and we hope to continue this long-standing tradition with our new and already flourishing community.”

All of the findings from the excavations have been removed from the site and are now being analysed by MOLA’s specialist teams.

Manchester Victorian baths uncovered under the car park

Manchester Victorian baths uncovered under the car park

Remnants from one of the earliest Victorian bathhouses have been unearthed beneath a car park. The “stunning” remains of Mayfield Baths, where mill workers took baths and washed their clothes, were found by archaeologists in Manchester.

The ornate tiles of the Mayfield baths, whose pools measured nearly 20 meters, were found in “stunning” condition beneath a car park 164 years after it opened.

The building, a grand Italianate design set in the heart of Manchester’s booming “Cottonopolis” district, was demolished after being bombed in the second world war but the remains of its swimming pools have been discovered by archaeologists from the University of Salford.

Manchester Victorian baths uncovered under the car park
Archaeologist Steve Tamburello inspects segments of tiles from one of the pools that were part of Mayfield baths.

The bathhouse, which opened in 1857, was a vital public amenity that served generations of Mancunians, most of whom worked in the surrounding print and textiles factories.

The area behind Manchester Piccadilly station has mainly been derelict for years but is undergoing redevelopment as part of plans to build 1,500 homes, retail, leisure and office space, as well as a 6.5-acre park – the first in the city for 100 years.

Graham Mottershead, the project manager at Salford Archaeology, said: “The Mayfield bathhouse is a fascinating example of the social and public health advancements that came about during the Industrial Revolution.

“As the city’s population boomed with factory workers, crowded and substandard living conditions gave rise to the spread of cholera and typhoid. For those living and working around Mayfield, the Mayfield baths would have been a vital source of cleanliness and hygiene.

The ornate tiles from the Mayfield baths will be preserved for future use, developers said.

“The sheer pace of change and innovation during the Industrial Revolution means many advancements were not recorded.

Excavations like this help us to learn a great deal about what is arguably the most important period of human history and, in the case of Mayfield, a location that is so very relevant to the heritage of the people of Manchester.”

The Mayfield Partnership, the public-private company behind the redevelopment, said it would preserve the ornate tiles from the bathhouse and use them in future.

It plans to name one of the new commercial buildings after George Poulton, who became famous in the 1850s as a promoter of public health at the Mayfield baths.

The remains, which were uncovered by painstaking hand-digging as well as machine excavation, will be used to form a detailed record of the bathhouse by combining the findings with historical documents and digital drawings.

Roman road pre-dating Hadrian’s Wall discovered in Northumberland

Roman road pre-dating Hadrian’s Wall discovered in Northumberland

An ancient Roman road (formerly) linking north to south has been discovered off the coast of Northumberland. The discovery, which was almost two thousand years old, was made at one of the Settelingstone sites during construction on the water network.

They are thought to be from the road’s foundations and built by Agricola or his successors about AD80, although no evidence of its exact date was found. Archaeologists said given its location it was an “important part” of the early northern Roman frontier.

The ancient remains were discovered by Northumbrian Water when it began improvement works at the site of The Stanegate road, which linked Corbridge and Carlisle.  It is a £55,000 investment scheme at Stanegate Roman Road, near Settlingstones, Hexham.

Brian Hardy, Northumbrian Water project manager, said: “We are delighted to have uncovered this important piece of hidden heritage and play our part in helping to protect it.

“We have successfully delivered our investment work, through the use of alternative methods and techniques, to not only enhance and futureproof our customers’ water supplies but also protect this suspected integral part of surviving Roman archaeology.”

The utility company called in its own experts and notified relevant authorities to record and help preserve this important heritage finding.

The relic remnants of the road itself, monitored by Archaeological Research Services Ltd, pre-dates Hadrian’s Wall and had forts along its length – within one day’s march of each other.

This is why the well-known fort at Vindolanda is sited south of Hadrian’s Wall on the course of the Stanegate.”

Philippa Hunter, senior projects officer at Archaeological Research Services Ltd, said: “While monitoring the excavation pit, our archaeologist identified a deposit of compacted cobbles thought to be the remains of the Roman road’s foundations – it is believed to have been built by Agricola or his successors around 80 AD.

The remains are part of The Stanegate – a Roman road which ran east-west south of Hadrian’s Wall

“Here, the road was constructed using rounded cobbles set in a layer measuring around 15cm deep, with around 25cm of gravel surfacing laid on top.

“Unfortunately no dating evidence or finds have been recovered to confirm the precise date of the archaeological remains.

“However, given the location of the cobbles along the projected route of the Roman road and its depth below the modern road surface, we are confident the remains identified form an important part of the early northern Roman frontier.”

The remains are part of The Stanegate – a Roman road which ran east-west south of Hadrian’s Wall

Roman settlements, garrisons, and roads were established throughout the Northumberland region after Gnaeus Julius Agricola was appointed Roman governor of Britain in 78 AD.

Hadrian’s Wall was completed by about 130 AD, to define and defend the northern boundary of Roman Britain with Stanegate and Dere Street the major road links.

Archaeologists find the source of Stonehenge sarsen stones

Archaeologists find the source of Stonehenge sarsen stones

A team of researchers from the UK and South Africa has discovered that most of the hulking sandstone boulders — called sarsens — that make up the famous Stonehenge monument appear to share a common origin 25 km (15.5 miles) away in West Woods on the edge of the Marlborough Downs, Wiltshire.

The origins of the stones used to build Stonehenge around 2500 BCE and their transportation methods and routes have been the subject of debate among archaeologists and geologists for over 400 years.

Two main types of stones are present at the monument: the sarsen stones that form the primary architecture of Stonehenge and the bluestones near the centre of the monument.

Archaeologists find the source of Stonehenge sarsen stones
Feasts at nearby Durrington Walls drew attendees from all over Britain.

The smaller bluestones have been traced to Wales, but the origins of the sarsens have remained unknown, until now.

“Archaeologists and geologists have been debating where the sarsen stones used to build Stonehenge came from for more than four centuries,” said Professor David Nash, a scientist in the School of Environment and Technology at the University of Brighton and the School of Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies at the University of the Witwatersrand.

“These significant new data will help explain more of how the monument was constructed and, perhaps, offer insights into the routes by which the 20- to 30-ton stones were transported.”

Stonehenge in context: (A) distribution of silcrete boulders across southern Britain, including sarsens and conglomeratic variants known as puddingstone; (B) sampling sites and topography in the Stonehenge-Avebury area, along with proposed transportation routes for the sarsen stones; (C) plan of Stonehenge showing the area of the monument enclosed by earthworks plus numbered peripheral sarsen stones; (D) detail of the main Stonehenge monument showing the remaining bluestones and numbered sarsen stones.

To learn where the huge boulders came from, Professor Nash and colleagues used portable x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (PXRF) to initially characterize their chemical composition, then analyzed the data statistically to determine their degree of chemical variability.

Next, they performed inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) of samples from a core previously drilled through one sarsen stone — Stone 58 — and a range of sarsen boulders from across southern Britain.

After comparing these signatures, they were able to point to West Woods as the sarsens’ earliest home.

The reason the monument’s builders selected this site remains a mystery, although the scientists suggest the size and quality of West Woods’ stones, and the ease with which the builders could access them may have factored into the decision.

“We still don’t know where two of the 52 remaining sarsens at the monument came from,” Professor Nash said.

“These are upright Stone 26 at the northernmost point of the outer sarsen circle and lintel Stone 160 from the inner trilithon horseshoe.”

“It is possible that these stones were once more local to Stonehenge, but at this stage, we do not know.”

“We also don’t know the exact areas of West Woods where the sarsens were extracted.”

“Further geochemical testing of sarsens and archaeological investigations to discover extraction pits are needed to answer these questions.”